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ACP | Articles | Volume 19, issue 4
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655-2669, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2655-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655-2669, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2655-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 28 Feb 2019

Research article | 28 Feb 2019

Implication of tropical lower stratospheric cooling in recent trends in tropical circulation and deep convective activity

Kunihiko Kodera et al.
Data sets

The JRA-55 Reanalysis: General Specifications and Basic Characteristics S. Kobayashi, Y. Ota, H. Harada, A. Ebita, M. Moriya, H. Onoda, K. Onogi, H. Kamahori, C. Kobayashi, H. Endo, K. Miyaoka, and K. Takahashi https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-001

Objective analyses of sea-surface temperature and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICOADS and the KOBE collection M. Ishii, A. Shouji, S. Sugimoto, and T. Matsumoto http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/elnino/cobesst/cobe-sst.html

The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present) R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, A. Chang, R. Ferraro, P., Xie, J. E. Janowiak, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, S. Curtis, D. T. Bolvin, A. Gruber, J. Susskind, P. A. Arkin, and E. J. Nelkin https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.gpcp.html

NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) H.-T. Lee and NOAA CDR Program https://doi.org/10.7289/V5W37TKD

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Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced...
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