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Volume 18, issue 11 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877-7911, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 05 Jun 2018

Research article | 05 Jun 2018

A European aerosol phenomenology – 6: scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from 28 ACTRIS sites

Marco Pandolfi1, Lucas Alados-Arboledas2, Andrés Alastuey1, Marcos Andrade3, Christo Angelov4, Begoña Artiñano5, John Backman6,7, Urs Baltensperger8, Paolo Bonasoni9, Nicolas Bukowiecki8, Martine Collaud Coen10, Sébastien Conil11, Esther Coz5, Vincent Crenn12,13, Vadimas Dudoitis14, Marina Ealo1, Kostas Eleftheriadis15, Olivier Favez16, Prodromos Fetfatzis15, Markus Fiebig17, Harald Flentje18, Patrick Ginot19, Martin Gysel8, Bas Henzing20, Andras Hoffer21, Adela Holubova Smejkalova22,23, Ivo Kalapov4, Nikos Kalivitis24,25, Giorgos Kouvarakis24, Adam Kristensson26, Markku Kulmala6, Heikki Lihavainen7, Chris Lunder17, Krista Luoma6, Hassan Lyamani2, Angela Marinoni9, Nikos Mihalopoulos24,25, Marcel Moerman20, José Nicolas27, Colin O'Dowd28, Tuukka Petäjä6, Jean-Eudes Petit12,16, Jean Marc Pichon27, Nina Prokopciuk14, Jean-Philippe Putaud29, Sergio Rodríguez30, Jean Sciare12,a, Karine Sellegri27, Erik Swietlicki26, Gloria Titos2, Thomas Tuch31, Peter Tunved32, Vidmantas Ulevicius14, Aditya Vaishya28,33, Milan Vana22,23, Aki Virkkula6, Stergios Vratolis15, Ernest Weingartner8,b, Alfred Wiedensohler31, and Paolo Laj6,9,19 Marco Pandolfi et al.
  • 1Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, c/Jordi-Girona 18–26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain
  • 2Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research, IISTA-CEAMA, University of Granada, Granada 18006, Spain
  • 3Atmospheric Physics Laboratory, ALP, UMSA, Campus Cota Cota calle 27, Endifico FCPN piso 3, La Paz, Bolivia
  • 4Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 5Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT, Unidad Asociada en Contaminación Atmosférica, CIEMAT-CSIC, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
  • 6University of Helsinki, UHEL, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki, Finland
  • 7Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, 00560, Helsinki, Finland
  • 8Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), OFLB,, 5232, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • 9Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, ISAC, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129, Bologna, Italy
  • 10Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss, Chemin de l'aérologie, 1530 Payerne, Switzerland
  • 11ANDRA – DRD – Observation Surveillance, Observatoire Pérenne de l'Environnement, Bure, France
  • 12LSCE-Orme point courrier 129 CEA-Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 13ADDAIR, BP 70207 – 189, rue Audemars, 78530, Buc, France
  • 14SRI Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, CPST, Sauletekio ave. 3, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • 15Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Science & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”, Athens, 15341, Greece
  • 16Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte, 60550, France
  • 17Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Atmosphere and Climate Department, NILU, Instituttveien 18, 2007, Kjeller, Norway
  • 18Deutscher Wetterdienst, Met. Obs. Hohenpeissenberg, 82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
  • 19University Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS, IRD, INPG, IGE 38000 Grenoble, France
  • 20TNO B&O, Princetonlaan 6, 3584TA, The Hague, the Netherlands
  • 21MTA-PE Air Chemistry Research Group, Veszprém, P.O. Box 158, 8201, Hungary
  • 22Global Change Research Institute AS CR, Belidla 4a, 603 00, Brno, Czech Republic
  • 23Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Sabatce 17, 143 06, Prague, Czech Republic
  • 24Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71003, Greece
  • 25Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (NOA), I. Metaxa & Vas. Pavlou, 15236 Palea Penteli, Greece
  • 26Lund University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 118, 22100, Lund, Sweden
  • 27CNRS-LaMP Université Blaise Pascal 4, Avenue Blaise Pascal, 63178 Aubiere CEDEX, France
  • 28School of Physics and Centre for Climate & Air Pollution Studies, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
  • 29EC Joint Research Centre, EC-JRC-IES, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027, Ispra, Italy
  • 30Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, AEMET, Izaña Atmospheric Research Center, La Marina 20, 38071, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
  • 31Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany
  • 32Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES) and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
  • 33Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Thiruvananthapuram – 695022, India
  • anow at: EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • bnow at: Institute for Aerosol and Sensor Technology, University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), Windisch, Switzerland

Abstract. This paper presents the light-scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles measured over the past decade at 28 ACTRIS observatories, which are located mainly in Europe. The data include particle light scattering (σsp) and hemispheric backscattering (σbsp) coefficients, scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), backscatter fraction (BF) and asymmetry parameter (g). An increasing gradient of σsp is observed when moving from remote environments (arctic/mountain) to regional and to urban environments. At a regional level in Europe, σsp also increases when moving from Nordic and Baltic countries and from western Europe to central/eastern Europe, whereas no clear spatial gradient is observed for other station environments. The SAE does not show a clear gradient as a function of the placement of the station. However, a west-to-east-increasing gradient is observed for both regional and mountain placements, suggesting a lower fraction of fine-mode particle in western/south-western Europe compared to central and eastern Europe, where the fine-mode particles dominate the scattering. The g does not show any clear gradient by station placement or geographical location reflecting the complex relationship of this parameter with the physical properties of the aerosol particles. Both the station placement and the geographical location are important factors affecting the intra-annual variability. At mountain sites, higher σsp and SAE values are measured in the summer due to the enhanced boundary layer influence and/or new particle-formation episodes. Conversely, the lower horizontal and vertical dispersion during winter leads to higher σsp values at all low-altitude sites in central and eastern Europe compared to summer. These sites also show SAE maxima in the summer (with corresponding g minima). At all sites, both SAE and g show a strong variation with aerosol particle loading. The lowest values of g are always observed together with low σsp values, indicating a larger contribution from particles in the smaller accumulation mode. During periods of high σsp values, the variation of g is less pronounced, whereas the SAE increases or decreases, suggesting changes mostly in the coarse aerosol particle mode rather than in the fine mode. Statistically significant decreasing trends of σsp are observed at 5 out of the 13 stations included in the trend analyses. The total reductions of σsp are consistent with those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations over similar periods across Europe.

Publications Copernicus
Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle...