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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 18, issue 10 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7379-7391, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-7379-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 28 May 2018

Research article | 28 May 2018

Identification of secondary aerosol precursors emitted by an aircraft turbofan

Doğuşhan Kılıç1,a, Imad El Haddad1, Benjamin T. Brem2,5, Emily Bruns1, Carlo Bozetti1, Joel Corbin1, Lukas Durdina2,5, Ru-Jin Huang1, Jianhui Jiang1, Felix Klein1, Avi Lavi4, Simone M. Pieber1, Theo Rindlisbacher3, Yinon Rudich4, Jay G. Slowik1, Jing Wang2,5, Urs Baltensperger1, and Andre S. H. Prévôt1 Doğuşhan Kılıç et al.
  • 1Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • 2Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Empa, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 3Federal Office of Civil Aviation, 3003 Bern, Switzerland
  • 4Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
  • 5Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
  • anow at: Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, 34469 Maslak, Turkey

Abstract. Oxidative processing of aircraft turbine-engine exhausts was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber at different engine loads corresponding to typical flight operations. Measurements were conducted at an engine test cell. Organic gases (OGs) and particle emissions pre- and post-PAM were measured. A suite of instruments, including a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) for OGs, a multigas analyzer for CO, CO2, NOx, and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for nonrefractory particulate matter (NR-PM1) were used. Total aerosol mass was dominated by secondary aerosol formation, which was approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the primary aerosol. The chemical composition of both gaseous and particle emissions were also monitored at different engine loads and were thrust-dependent. At idling load (thrust 2.5–7%), more than 90% of the secondary particle mass was organic and could mostly be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species, e.g., benzene; toluene; xylenes; tri-, tetra-, and pentamethyl-benzene; and naphthalene. The oxygenated-aromatics, e.g., phenol, furans, were also included in this aromatic fraction and their oxidation could alone explain up to 25% of the secondary organic particle mass at idling loads. The organic fraction decreased with thrust level, while the inorganic fraction increased. At an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85% of the total secondary particle mass.

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We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate emissions at different engine loads, we explained SA formed in an oxidation flow reactor (PAM) by the oxidation of gaseous species. At idle, more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species, while at an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total SA.
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring...
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