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Volume 18, issue 9 | Copyright

Special issue: CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6887-6906, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6887-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 16 May 2018

Research article | 16 May 2018

Intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollutants over the Mediterranean Basin during the summer 2014 ChArMEx-GLAM airborne campaign

Vanessa Brocchi1, Gisèle Krysztofiak1, Valéry Catoire1, Jonathan Guth2, Virginie Marécal2, Régina Zbinden2, Laaziz El Amraoui2, François Dulac3, and Philippe Ricaud2 Vanessa Brocchi et al.
  • 1LPC2E, CNRS – Université Orléans, 45071 Orléans, France
  • 2CNRM, Météo-France-CNRS, UMR 3589, 31057 Toulouse, France
  • 3LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Abstract. The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) campaign was set up in August 2014, as part of the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) project. This campaign aimed to study the chemical variability of gaseous pollutants and aerosols in the troposphere along a west–east transect above the Mediterranean Basin (MB). In the present work, we focus on two biomass burning events detected at 5.4 and 9.7km altitude above sea level (a.s.l.) over Sardinia (from 39°12′N–9°15′E to 35°35′N–12°35′E and at 39°30′N–8°25′E, respectively). Concentration variations in trace gas carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and aerosols were measured thanks to the standard instruments on board the Falcon 20 aircraft operated by the Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement (SAFIRE) and the Spectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute Altitude (SPIRIT) developed by LPC2E. Twenty-day backward trajectories with Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle) help to understand the transport processes and the origin of the emissions that contributed to this pollution detected above Sardinia. Biomass burning emissions came (i) on 10 August from the North American continent with air masses transported during 5 days before arriving over the MB, and (ii) on 6 August from Siberia, with air masses travelling during 12 days and enriched in fire emission products above Canada 5 days before arriving over the MB. In combination with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) inventory and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite fire locations, FLEXPART reproduces well the contribution of those fires to CO and aerosols enhancements under adjustments of the injection height to 10km in both cases and application of an amplification factor of 2 on CO GFAS emissions for the 10 August event. The chemistry transport model (CTM) MOCAGE is used as a complementary tool for the case of 6 August to confirm the origin of the emissions by tracing the CO global atmospheric composition reaching the MB. For this event, both models agree on the origin of air masses with CO concentrations simulated with MOCAGE lower than the observed ones, likely caused by the coarse model horizontal resolution that yields the dilution of the emissions and diffusion during transport. In combination with wind fields, the analysis of the transport of the air mass documented on 6 August suggests the subsidence of CO pollution from Siberia towards North America and then a transport to the MB via fast jet winds located at around 5.5km in altitude. Finally, using the ratio ΔO3ΔCO, the plume age can be estimated and the production of O3 during the transport of the air mass is studied using the MOCAGE model.

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The Mediterranean Basin still suffers from a limited amount of in situ measurements for a good characterization of its environmental state. This study shows that intercontinental transport of very high CO concentrations can affect the upper Mediterranean Basin troposphere. By using modeling, 5- to 12-day eastward transport of biomass burning starting from North America and Siberia impacts the mid-troposphere of the Mediterranean Basin.
The Mediterranean Basin still suffers from a limited amount of in situ measurements for a good...
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