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Volume 18, issue 9 | Copyright

Special issue: Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 2016 – Status and trends...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6427-6440, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6427-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 07 May 2018

Research article | 07 May 2018

Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

Christos Zerefos1,2, John Kapsomenakis1, Kostas Eleftheratos3, Kleareti Tourpali4, Irina Petropavlovskikh5, Daan Hubert6, Sophie Godin-Beekmann7, Wolfgang Steinbrecht8, Stacey Frith9, Viktoria Sofieva10, and Birgit Hassler11 Christos Zerefos et al.
  • 1Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 2Navarino Environmental Observatory (N.E.O), Messinia, Greece
  • 3Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 4Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 5Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 6Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
  • 7Laboratoire Atmosphère Milieux Observations Spatiales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Guyancourt, France
  • 8Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hohenpeißenberg, Germany
  • 9NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • 10Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 11Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

Abstract. This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

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We point out the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations in the middle/upper stratosphere. We examine the contribution of chemistry and natural proxies to ozone profile trends. Above 10 hPa an “inflection point” between 1997–99 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period of positive ozone change in 1998–2015. Below 15 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become insignificant as we move to 2015.
We point out the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile...
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