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Volume 18, issue 5 | Copyright

Special issue: Anthropogenic dust and its climate impact

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3505-3521, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 09 Mar 2018

Research article | 09 Mar 2018

Environmentally dependent dust chemistry of a super Asian dust storm in March 2010: observation and simulation

Qiongzhen Wang1,2, Xinyi Dong3, Joshua S. Fu3, Jian Xu1, Congrui Deng1, Yilun Jiang1, Qingyan Fu4, Yanfen Lin4, Kan Huang1,5, and Guoshun Zhuang1 Qiongzhen Wang et al.
  • 1Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China
  • 2Environmental Science Research & Design Institute of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, 310007, P. R. China
  • 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
  • 4Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, Shanghai, 200030, China
  • 5Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China

Abstract. Near-surface and vertical in situ measurements of atmospheric particles were conducted in Shanghai during 19–23 March 2010 to explore the transport and chemical evolution of dust particles in a super dust storm. An air quality model with optimized physical dust emission scheme and newly implemented dust chemistry was utilized to study the impact of dust chemistry on regional air quality. Two discontinuous dust periods were observed with one traveling over northern China (DS1) and the other passing over the coastal regions of eastern China (DS2). Stronger mixing extents between dust and anthropogenic emissions were found in DS2, reflected by the higher SO2PM10 and NO2PM10 ratios as well as typical pollution elemental species such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. As a result, the concentrations of SO42− and NO3 and the ratio of Ca2+Ca were more elevated in DS2 than in DS1 but opposite for the [NH4+][SO42−+NO3] ratio, suggesting the heterogeneous reactions between calcites and acid gases were significantly promoted in DS2 due to the higher level of relative humidity and gaseous pollution precursors. Lidar observation showed a columnar effect on the vertical structure of particle optical properties in DS1 that dust dominantly accounted for ∼80–90% of the total particle extinction from near the ground to ∼700m. In contrast, the dust plumes in DS2 were restrained within lower altitudes while the extinction from spherical particles exhibited a maximum at a high altitude of ∼800m. The model simulation reproduced relatively consistent results with observations that strong impacts of dust heterogeneous reactions on secondary aerosol formation occurred in areas where the anthropogenic emissions were intensive. Compared to the sulfate simulation, the nitrate formation on dust is suggested to be improved in the future modeling efforts.

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A synergy of ground-based atmospheric chemistry observation, lidar, and numerical modeling was used to investigate a super dust event passing over Shanghai. The degree of dust that was modified by anthropogenic sources highly depended on the transport pathways. A community regional air quality model with improved dust scheme reproduced reasonable dust chemistry results. The chemical and optical properties of evolving dust are crucial for evaluating the climatic effects of dust.
A synergy of ground-based atmospheric chemistry observation, lidar, and numerical modeling was...