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Volume 18, issue 4 | Copyright

Special issue: CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2395-2411, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 19 Feb 2018

Research article | 19 Feb 2018

Long-term series and trends in surface solar radiation in Athens, Greece

Stelios Kazadzis1,2, Dimitra Founda2, Basil E. Psiloglou2, Harry Kambezidis2, Nickolaos Mihalopoulos2,3, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo4,5, Charikleia Meleti6, Panagiotis I. Raptis1,2, Fragiskos Pierros2, and Pierre Nabat7 Stelios Kazadzis et al.
  • 1Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) Dorfstrasse 33, 7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland
  • 2Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 3Department of Chemistry, Univ. of Crete, Heraklion, Crete
  • 4Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza, Spain
  • 5Department of Physics, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
  • 6Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 7CNRM UMR3589, Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France

Abstract. We present a long-term series of surface solar radiation (SSR) from the city of Athens, Greece. SSR measurements were performed from 1954 to 2012, and before that (1900–1953) sunshine duration (SD) records were used in order to reconstruct monthly SSR. Analysis of the whole data set (1900–2012) mainly showed very small (0.02%) changes in SSR from 1900 to 1953, including a maximum decrease of −2.9%decade−1 in SSR during the 1910 to 1940 period, assuming a linear change. For the dimming period 1955–1980, −2%decade−1 was observed that matches various European long-term SSR-measurement-related studies. This percentage in Athens is in the lower limit, compared to other studies in the Mediterranean area. For the brightening period 1980–2012 we calculated +1.5%decade−1, which is also in the lower limit of the reported positive changes in SSR around Europe. Comparing the 30-year periods 1954–1983 and 1983–2012, we found a difference of 4.5%. However, measurements of the first 30-year period are associated with higher uncertainties than those of the second period, especially when looking at year-to-year changes. The difference between the two periods was observed for all seasons except winter. Analyzing SSR calculations of all-sky and clear-sky (cloudless) conditions/days, we report that most of the observed changes in SSR after 1954 can be attributed partly to cloudiness and mostly to aerosol load changes.

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The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and cloud and visibility data/observations since the beginning of the 20th century. In this work we present surface solar radiation data since 1953 and reconstructed data since 1900. We have attempted to show and discuss the long-term changes in solar surface radiation over Athens, Greece, using these unique datasets.
The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and...