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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2139-2154, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2139-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
14 Feb 2018
Downwind evolution of the volatility and mixing state of near-road aerosols near a US interstate highway
Provat K. Saha1, Andrey Khlystov2, and Andrew P. Grieshop1 1Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
2Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, USA
Abstract. We present spatial measurements of particle volatility and mixing state at a site near a North Carolina interstate highway (I-40) applying several heating (thermodenuder; TD) experimental approaches. Measurements were conducted in summer 2015 and winter 2016 in a roadside trailer (10 m from road edge) and during downwind transects at different distances from the highway under favorable wind conditions using a mobile platform. Results show that the relative abundance of semi-volatile species (SVOCs) in ultrafine particles decreases with downwind distance, which is consistent with the dilution and mixing of traffic-sourced particles with background air and evaporation of semi-volatile species during downwind transport. An evaporation kinetics model was used to derive particle volatility distributions by fitting TD data. While the TD-derived distribution apportions about 20–30 % of particle mass as semi-volatile (SVOCs; effective saturation concentration, C ≥ 1µm−3) at 10 m from the road edge, approximately 10 % of particle mass is attributed to SVOCs at 220 m, showing that the particle-phase semi-volatile fraction decreases with downwind distance. The relative abundance of semi-volatile material in the particle phase increased during winter. Downwind spatial gradients of the less volatile particle fraction (that remaining after heating at 180 °C) were strongly correlated with black carbon (BC). BC size distribution and mixing state measured using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) at the roadside trailer showed that a large fraction (70–80 %) of BC particles were externally mixed. Heating experiments with a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) also showed that the nonvolatile fraction in roadside aerosols is mostly externally mixed. V-TDMA measurements at different distances downwind from the highway indicate that the mixing state of roadside aerosols does not change significantly (e.g., BC mostly remains externally mixed) within a few hundred meters from the highway. Our analysis indicates that a superposition of volatility distributions measured in laboratory vehicle tests and of background aerosol can be used to represent the observed partitioning of near-road particles. The results from this study show that exposures and impacts of BC and semi-volatile organics-containing particles in a roadside microenvironment may differ across seasons and under changing ambient conditions.
Citation: Saha, P. K., Khlystov, A., and Grieshop, A. P.: Downwind evolution of the volatility and mixing state of near-road aerosols near a US interstate highway, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2139-2154, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2139-2018, 2018.
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Short summary
We present spatial measurements of particle volatility and mixing state near a US interstate highway. We find that the relative abundance of semi-volatile species in ultrafine particles decreases with downwind distance and the mixing state of roadside aerosols does not change significantly within a few hundred meters from the highway. The results from our study show that exposures and impacts of near-road particles may differ across seasons and under changing ambient conditions.
We present spatial measurements of particle volatility and mixing state near a US interstate...
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