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Volume 18, issue 21 | Copyright

Special issue: Shipping and the Environment – From Regional to Global...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15811-15824, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-15811-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 02 Nov 2018

Research article | 02 Nov 2018

Impacts of shipping emissions on PM2.5 pollution in China

Zhaofeng Lv1,2, Huan Liu1,2, Qi Ying3, Mingliang Fu4,5, Zhihang Meng1,2, Yue Wang1,2, Wei Wei6, Huiming Gong7, and Kebin He1,2 Zhaofeng Lv et al.
  • 1State Key Joint Laboratory of ESPC, School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 2State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing 100084, China
  • 3Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  • 4State Key Laboratory of environmental criteria and risk assessment (SKLECRA), Chinese research academy of environmental sciences, Beijing 100012, China
  • 5Vehicle emission control center, Ministry of ecology and environment of the people's republic of China, Beijing 100012, China
  • 6Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
  • 7National Laboratory of Automotive Performance & Emission Test, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

Abstract. With the fast development of seaborne trade and relatively more efforts on reducing emissions from other sources in China, shipping emissions contribute more and more significantly to air pollution. In this study, based on a shipping emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution within 200 nautical miles (Nm) to the Chinese coastline, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to quantify the impacts of the shipping sector on the annual and seasonal concentrations of PM2.5 for the base year 2015 in China. Emissions within 12Nm accounted for 51.2%–56.5% of the total shipping emissions, and the distinct seasonal variations in spatial distribution were observed. The modeling results showed that shipping emissions increased the annual averaged PM2.5 concentrations in eastern China up to 5.2µgm−3, and the impacts in YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and PRD (Pearl River Delta) were much greater than those in BTH (Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei). Shipping emissions influenced the air quality in not only coastal areas but also the inland areas hundreds of kilometers (up to 960km) away from the sea. The impacts on the PM2.5 showed obvious seasonal variations, and patterns in the north and south of the Yangtze River were also quite different. In addition, since the onshore wind can carry ship pollutants to inland areas, the daily contributions of shipping emissions in onshore flow days were about 1.8–2.7 times higher than those in the rest of the days. A source-oriented CMAQ was used to estimate the contributions of shipping emissions from maritime areas within 0–12, 12–50, 50–100 and 100–200Nm to PM2.5 concentrations. The results indicated that shipping emissions within 12Nm were the dominant contributor, with contributions 30%–90% of the total impacts induced by emissions within 200Nm, while a relatively high contribution (40%–60%) of shipping emissions within 20–100Nm was observed in the north of the YRD region and south of Lianyungang, due to the major water traffic lanes far from land. The results presented in this work implied that shipping emissions had significant influence on air quality in China, and to reduce its pollution, the current Domestic Emission Control Area (DECA) should be expanded to at least 100Nm from the coastline.

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This study comprehensively analyzed the impacts of the marine transport sector to the concentrations of PM2.5 and its components in eastern China on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Furthermore, a source-oriented CMAQ was used to identify the contributions of shipping emissions from different maritime areas to the inland air quality. This work supplemented the insufficiency of multi-scale researches on the influences of the shipping sector on the inland air quality.
This study comprehensively analyzed the impacts of the marine transport sector to the...
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