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ACP | Articles | Volume 18, issue 21
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15623–15641, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-15623-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Special issue: The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC) (ACP/AMT...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15623–15641, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-15623-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 30 Oct 2018

Research article | 30 Oct 2018

Widespread polar stratospheric ice clouds in the 2015–2016 Arctic winter – implications for ice nucleation

Christiane Voigt et al.
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Achtert, P. and Tesche, M.: Assessing lidar-based classification schemes for polar stratospheric clouds based on 16 years of measurements at Esrange, Sweden, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 1386–1405, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020355, 2014. 
Berrisford, P., Dee, D., Poli, P., Brugge, R., Fielding, K., Fuentes, M., Kallberg, P., Kobayashi, S., Uppala, S., and Simmons, A.: The ERA-Interim archive Version 2.0, ERA Report Series 1, ECMWF, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 2011. 
Carslaw, K. S., Luo, B. P., Clegg, S. L., Peter, Th., Brimblecombe, P., and Crutzen, P. J.: Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2479–2482, 1994. 
Carslaw, K. S., Kettleborough, J. A., Northway, M. J., Davies, S., Gao, R. S., Fahey, D. W., Baumgardner, D. G., Chipperfield, M. P., and Kleinbohl, A.: A vortex-scale simulation of the growth and sedimentation of large nitric acid hydrate particles, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, SOL 43-1–SOL 43-16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jd000467, 2002. 
Chepfer, H. and Noel, V.: A tropical “NAT-like” belt observed from space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03813, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036289, 2009. 
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Short summary
The 2015–2016 stratospheric winter was the coldest in the 36-year climatological data record. The extreme conditions promoted the formation of persistent Arctic polar stratospheric ice clouds. An extended ice PSC detected by airborne lidar in January 2016 shows a second mode with higher particle depolarization ratios. Back-trajectories from the high-depol ice matched to CALIOP PSC curtains provide evidence for ice nucleation on NAT. The novel data consolidate our understanding of PSC formation.
The 2015–2016 stratospheric winter was the coldest in the 36-year climatological data record....
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