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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 18, issue 20 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15219-15229, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-15219-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 23 Oct 2018

Research article | 23 Oct 2018

Source contributions and potential reductions to health effects of particulate matter in India

Hao Guo1, Sri Harsha Kota2,3,4, Kaiyu Chen1, Shovan Kumar Sahu4, Jianlin Hu2, Qi Ying5, Yuan Wang6, and Hongliang Zhang1 Hao Guo et al.
  • 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
  • 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Cleaning Materials, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • 3Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016, India
  • 4Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039, India
  • 5Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  • 6Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91106, USA

Abstract. Health effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India were estimated in this study based on a source-oriented version of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Contributions of different sources to premature mortality and years of life lost (YLL) were quantified in 2015. Premature mortality due to cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) was the highest in India (0.44million), followed by ischaemic heart disease (IHD, 0.40million), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 0.18million), and lung cancer (LC, 0.01million), with a total of 1.04million deaths. The states with highest premature mortality were Uttar Pradesh (0.23million), Bihar (0.12million), and West Bengal (0.10million). The highest total YLL was 2 years in Delhi, and the Indo-Gangetic plains and eastern India had higher YLL ( ∼ 1 years) than other regions. The residential sector was the largest contributor to PM2.5 concentrations ( ∼ 40µgm−3), total premature mortality (0.58 million), and YLL ( ∼ 0.2 years). Other important sources included industry ( ∼ 20µgm−3), agriculture ( ∼ 10µgm−3), and energy ( ∼ 5µgm−3) with their national averaged contributions of 0.21, 0.12, and 0.07 million to premature mortality, and 0.12, 0.1, and 0.05 years to YLL. Reducing PM2.5 concentrations would lead to a significant reduction of premature mortality and YLL. For example, premature mortality in Uttar Pradesh (including Delhi) due to PM2.5 exposures would be reduced by 79% and YLL would be reduced by 83% when reducing PM2.5 concentrations to 10µgm−3.

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A total of 1.04 million premature mortalities and up to 2 years of life lost (YLL) per person were estimated in India in 2015 due to PM2.5. Premature mortality due to cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) was the highest (0.44 million), followed by ischaemic heart disease (IHD, 0.40 million). The residential sector was the largest contributor, followed by industry, agriculture and energy. Reducing PM2.5 concentrations would lead to a significant reduction in premature mortality and YLL.
A total of 1.04 million premature mortalities and up to 2 years of life lost (YLL) per person...
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