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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 18, issue 20
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15169-15182, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15169-15182, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 22 Oct 2018

Research article | 22 Oct 2018

Emissions from village cookstoves in Haryana, India, and their potential impacts on air quality

Lauren T. Fleming1, Robert Weltman2, Ankit Yadav3, Rufus D. Edwards2, Narendra K. Arora3, Ajay Pillarisetti4, Simone Meinardi1, Kirk R. Smith4, Donald R. Blake1, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov1 Lauren T. Fleming et al.
  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
  • 2Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
  • 3The Inclen Trust, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-110020, India
  • 4School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

Abstract. Air quality in rural India is impacted by residential cooking and heating with biomass fuels. In this study, emissions of CO, CO2, and 76 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were quantified to better understand the relationship between cook fire emissions and ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Cooking was carried out by a local cook, and traditional dishes were prepared on locally built chulha or angithi cookstoves using brushwood or dung fuels. Cook fire emissions were collected throughout the cooking event in a Kynar bag (VOCs) and on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters (PM2.5). Gas samples were transferred from a Kynar bag to previously evacuated stainless-steel canisters and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization, electron capture, and mass spectrometry detectors. VOC emission factors were calculated from the measured mixing ratios using the carbon-balance method, which assumes that all carbon in the fuel is converted to CO2, CO, VOCs, and PM2.5 when the fuel is burned. Filter samples were weighed to calculate PM2.5 emission factors. Dung fuels and angithi cookstoves resulted in significantly higher emissions of most VOCs (p < 0.05). Utilizing dung–angithi cook fires resulted in twice as much of the measured VOCs compared to dung–chulha and 4 times as much as brushwood–chulha, with 84.0, 43.2, and 17.2g measured VOCkg−1 fuel carbon, respectively. This matches expectations, as the use of dung fuels and angithi cookstoves results in lower modified combustion efficiencies compared to brushwood fuels and chulha cookstoves. Alkynes and benzene were exceptions and had significantly higher emissions when cooking using a chulha as opposed to an angithi with dung fuel (for example, benzene emission factors were 3.18gkg−1 fuel carbon for dung–chulha and 2.38gkg−1 fuel carbon for dung–angithi). This study estimated that 3 times as much SOA and ozone in the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) regime may be produced from dung–chulha as opposed to brushwood–chulha cook fires. Aromatic compounds dominated as SOA precursors from all types of cook fires, but benzene was responsible for the majority of SOA formation potential from all chulha cook fire VOCs, while substituted aromatics were more important for dung–angithi. Future studies should investigate benzene exposures from different stove and fuel combinations and model SOA formation from cook fire VOCs to verify public health and air quality impacts from cook fires.

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Short summary
Brushwood- and dung-burning cookstoves are used for cooking and heating and influence ambient air quality for millions of people. We report emission factors from the more efficient cookstove, the chulha, compared to the smoldering angithi, for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and 76 volatile organic compounds. This comprehensive gas emission inventory should inform policy makers about the magnitude of the effect of cookstoves on the air quality in India.
Brushwood- and dung-burning cookstoves are used for cooking and heating and influence ambient...