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Volume 18, issue 19 | Copyright

Special issue: Regional transport and transformation of air pollution in...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14445-14464, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 10 Oct 2018

Research article | 10 Oct 2018

Air quality in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River channel: a cruise campaign

Zhong Li1, Chunlin Li1,2, Xingnan Ye1, Hongbo Fu1, Lin Wang1, Xin Yang1, Xinke Wang3, Zhuohui Zhao4, Haidong Kan4, Abdelwahid Mellouki5, and Jianmin Chen1,4 Zhong Li et al.
  • 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Fudan Tyndall Center, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  • 2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 7610001 Rehovot, Israel
  • 3Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 CNRS, IRCELYON, 69626, Villeurbanne, France
  • 4School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
  • 5Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS, 45071 Orléans CEDEX 02, France

Abstract. The Yangtze River is the longest river in China; nearly one-third of the national population lives along the river. Air quality over the Yangtze River is important as it may have significant influences on the aquatic ecosystem, the health of everyone living along the Yangtze River, and regional climate change. Chemical compositions of ambient aerosol were determined during a comprehensive cruise campaign carried out along the mid–lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) in winter of 2015. The total average concentration of PM2.5 was 119.29±33.67µgm−3, and the dominant ionic composition in PM2.5 was SO2−4 with an average concentration of 15.21±6.69µgm−3, followed by NO3 (13.76±4.99µgm−3), NH+4 (9.38±4.35µgm−3), and Ca2+ (2.23±1.24µgm−3) in this cruise. Based on the filter samples, the concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 were remarkably varied or fluctuated from coastal areas to inland over the MLYR region. Crustal elements (Ca, Mg, Al, and K) from floating dust showed peak concentrations in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, while secondary inorganic species (SO2−4, NO3, and NH+4) and some of the most enriched elements (Pb, As, Se, and Cd) presented high levels in central China (Wuhan region). The significant correlation between Se and SO2−4 suggested that coal combustion may play an important role in secondary inorganic aerosol formation. The relatively high enrichment factors (EFs) of Ca (EFs > 100) suggested the crustal elements may derive from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, the concentration of levoglucosan in PM2.5 and the CO column level from satellite observation were greatly enhanced in the rural areas (Anhui and Jiangxi), indicating that biomass burning may make a remarkable contribution to rural areas. The concentrations of typical tracer for heavy oil (V and Ni) significantly increased in the Shanghai port, which was mainly ascribed to ship emissions, based on the air mass source analysis and the relatively high ratio of VNi as well. The results shown herein portray a good picture of air pollution along the Yangtze River.

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Short summary
Air quality over the Yangtze River is important as it may significantly influence aquatic ecosystems, public health, and coastal areas. A comprehensive 15-day cruise campaign, TEMP, was performed in the mid–lower reaches of the Yangtze River in winter of 2015. Based on the filter samples, the chemical composition of PM2.5 greatly varied or fluctuated.
Air quality over the Yangtze River is important as it may significantly influence aquatic...