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Volume 18, issue 14 | Copyright

Special issue: The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign to study deep convective clouds...

Special issue: Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) Special Issue

Special issue: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391-10405, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 23 Jul 2018

Research article | 23 Jul 2018

African volcanic emissions influencing atmospheric aerosols over the Amazon rain forest

Jorge Saturno1, Florian Ditas1, Marloes Penning de Vries1, Bruna A. Holanda1, Mira L. Pöhlker1, Samara Carbone2,3, David Walter1, Nicole Bobrowski4,1, Joel Brito2,5, Xuguang Chi6, Alexandra Gutmann7, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis1, Luiz A. T. Machado8, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga1, Julian Rüdiger9, Johannes Schneider1, Christiane Schulz1, Qiaoqiao Wang10, Manfred Wendisch11, Paulo Artaxo2, Thomas Wagner1, Ulrich Pöschl1, Meinrat O. Andreae1,12, and Christopher Pöhlker1 Jorge Saturno et al.
  • 1Biogeochemistry, Multiphase Chemistry, and Particle Chemistry Departments, and Satellite Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
  • 2Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo (USP), Rua do Matão, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
  • 3Institute of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 4Institute for Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 5Laboratory for Meteorological Physics, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 6Institute for Climate and Global Change Research & School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China
  • 7Department of Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
  • 8Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil
  • 9Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Dr.-Hans-Frisch-Straße 1–3, 95448 Bayreuth, Germany
  • 10Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 511443, China
  • 11Leipziger Institut für Meteorologie (LIM), Universität Leipzig, Stephanstr. 3, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
  • 12Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92098, USA

Abstract. The long-range transport (LRT) of trace gases and aerosol particles plays an important role for the composition of the Amazonian rain forest atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols originate to a substantial extent from LRT sources and play an important role in the Amazonian atmosphere as strongly light-scattering particles and effective cloud condensation nuclei. The transatlantic transport of volcanic sulfur emissions from Africa has been considered as a source of particulate sulfate in the Amazon; however, direct observations have been lacking so far. This study provides observational evidence for the influence of emissions from the Nyamuragira–Nyiragongo volcanoes in Africa on Amazonian aerosol properties and atmospheric composition during September 2014. Comprehensive ground-based and airborne aerosol measurements together with satellite observations are used to investigate the volcanic event. Under the volcanic influence, hourly mean sulfate mass concentrations in the submicron size range reached up to 3.6µgm−3 at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory, the highest value ever reported in the Amazon region. The substantial sulfate injection increased the aerosol hygroscopicity with κ values up to 0.36, thus altering aerosol–cloud interactions over the rain forest. Airborne measurements and satellite data indicate that the transatlantic transport of volcanogenic aerosols occurred in two major volcanic plumes with a sulfate-enhanced layer between 4 and 5km of altitude. This study demonstrates how African aerosol sources, such as volcanic sulfur emissions, can substantially affect the aerosol cycling and atmospheric processes in Amazonia.

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This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their...