Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 5.509 IF 5.509
  • IF 5-year value: 5.689 IF 5-year 5.689
  • CiteScore value: 5.44 CiteScore 5.44
  • SNIP value: 1.519 SNIP 1.519
  • SJR value: 3.032 SJR 3.032
  • IPP value: 5.37 IPP 5.37
  • h5-index value: 86 h5-index 86
  • Scimago H index value: 161 Scimago H index 161
Volume 18, issue 14 | Copyright

Special issue: The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP):...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10133-10156, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10133-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 17 Jul 2018

Research article | 17 Jul 2018

Extreme temperature and precipitation response to solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

Duoying Ji1, Songsong Fang1, Charles L. Curry2,3, Hiroki Kashimura4, Shingo Watanabe5, Jason N. S. Cole6, Andrew Lenton7, Helene Muri8,9, Ben Kravitz10, and John C. Moore1,11,12 Duoying Ji et al.
  • 1College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • 2School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 3Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 4Department of Planetology/Center for Planetary Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
  • 5Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
  • 6Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 7Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 8Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 9Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  • 10Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, USA
  • 11Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, P.O. Box 122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland
  • 12CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Abstract. We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under two potential geoengineering methods forming part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The solar dimming experiment G1 is designed to completely offset the global mean radiative forcing due to a CO2-quadrupling experiment (abrupt4 × CO2), while in GeoMIP experiment G4, the radiative forcing due to the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario is partly offset by a simulated layer of aerosols in the stratosphere. Both G1 and G4 geoengineering simulations lead to lower minimum temperatures (TNn) at higher latitudes and on land, primarily through feedback effects involving high-latitude processes such as snow cover, sea ice and soil moisture. There is larger cooling of TNn and maximum temperatures (TXx) over land compared with oceans, and the land–sea cooling contrast is larger for TXx than TNn. Maximum 5-day precipitation (Rx5day) increases over subtropical oceans, whereas warm spells (WSDI) decrease markedly in the tropics, and the number of consecutive dry days (CDDs) decreases in most deserts. The precipitation during the tropical cyclone (hurricane) seasons becomes less intense, whilst the remainder of the year becomes wetter. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective than solar dimming in moderating extreme precipitation (and flooding). Despite the magnitude of the radiative forcing applied in G1 being  ∼ 7.7 times larger than in G4 and despite differences in the aerosol chemistry and transport schemes amongst the models, the two types of geoengineering show similar spatial patterns in normalized differences in extreme temperatures changes. Large differences mainly occur at northern high latitudes, where stratospheric aerosol injection more effectively reduces TNn and TXx. While the pattern of normalized differences in extreme precipitation is more complex than that of extreme temperatures, generally stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical Rx5day, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.

Download & links
Publications Copernicus
Special issue
Download
Short summary
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and stratospheric aerosol injection geoengineering schemes. Both types of geoengineering lead to lower minimum temperatures at higher latitudes and greater cooling of minimum temperatures and maximum temperatures over land compared with oceans. Stratospheric aerosol injection is more effective in reducing tropical extreme precipitation, while solar dimming is more effective over extra-tropical regions.
We examine extreme temperature and precipitation under climate-model-simulated solar dimming and...
Citation
Share