Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9945-9964, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-9945-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
25 Aug 2017
Assessment of carbonaceous aerosols in Shanghai, China – Part 1: long-term evolution, seasonal variations, and meteorological effects
Yunhua Chang1,2, Congrui Deng3, Fang Cao1,2, Chang Cao1,2, Zhong Zou4, Shoudong Liu1,2, Xuhui Lee1,2,5, Jun Li6, Gan Zhang6, and Yanlin Zhang1,2 1Yale–NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, International Joint Laboratory on Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education (KLME)/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD), Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
4Pudong New Area Environmental Monitoring Station, Shanghai 200135, China
5School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
6State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
Abstract. Carbonaceous aerosols are major chemical components of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) with major impacts on air quality, climate change, and human health. Gateway to fast-rising China and home of over twenty million people, Shanghai throbs as the nation's largest mega city and the biggest industrial hub. From July 2010 to December 2014, hourly mass concentrations of ambient organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the PM2. 5 fraction were quasi-continuously measured in Shanghai's urban center. The annual OC and EC concentrations (mean ±1σ) in 2013 (8.9 ± 6.2 and 2.6 ± 2.1 µg m−3, n =  5547) and 2014 (7.8 ± 4.6 and 2.1 ± 1.6 µg m−3, n =  6914) were higher than those of 2011 (6.3 ± 4.2 and 2.4 ± 1.8 µg m−3, n =  8039) and 2012 (5.7 ± 3.8 and 2.0 ± 1.6 µg m−3, n =  4459). We integrated the results from historical field measurements (1999–2012) and satellite observations (2003–2013), concluding that carbonaceous aerosol pollution in Shanghai has gradually reduced since 2006. In terms of monthly variations, average OC and EC concentrations ranged from 4.0 to 15.5 and from 1.4 to 4.7 µg m−3, accounting for 13.2–24.6 and 3.9–6.6 % of the seasonal PM2. 5 mass (38.8–94.1 µg m−3), respectively. The concentrations of EC (2.4, 2.0, 2.2, and 3.0 µg m−3 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively) showed little seasonal variation (except in winter) and weekend–weekday dependence, indicating EC is a relatively stable constituent of PM2. 5 in the Shanghai urban atmosphere. In contrast to OC (7.3, 6.8, 6.7, and 8.1 µg m−3 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively), EC showed marked diurnal cycles and correlated strongly with CO across all seasons, confirming vehicular emissions as the dominant source of EC at the targeted site. Our data also reveal that both OC and EC showed concentration gradients as a function of wind direction (WD) and wind speed (WS), generally with higher values associated with winds from the southwest, west, and northwest. This was consistent with their higher potential as source areas, as determined by the potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis. A common high-potential source area, located along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River instead of northern China, was pinpointed during all seasons. These results demonstrate that the measured carbonaceous aerosols were driven by the interplay of local emissions and regional transport.

Citation: Chang, Y., Deng, C., Cao, F., Cao, C., Zou, Z., Liu, S., Lee, X., Li, J., Zhang, G., and Zhang, Y.: Assessment of carbonaceous aerosols in Shanghai, China – Part 1: long-term evolution, seasonal variations, and meteorological effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9945-9964, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-9945-2017, 2017.
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This paper presents the results from a 5-year and near-real-time measurement study of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Moreover, we integrated the results from historical field measurements and satellite observations, concluding that carbonaceous aerosol pollution in Shanghai has gradually reduced since 2006. This can be largely explained by the introduction of air-cleaning measures such as controlling vehicular emissions.
This paper presents the results from a 5-year and near-real-time measurement study of...
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