Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7721-7731, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
28 Jun 2017
Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy
Stefano Decesari1, Mohammad Hossein Sowlat2, Sina Hasheminassab2, Silvia Sandrini1, Stefania Gilardoni1, Maria Cristina Facchini1, Sandro Fuzzi1, and Constantinos Sioutas2 1Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Research Council of Italy, Bologna, Italy
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Abstract. While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November–March). We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times) than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing) and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

Citation: Decesari, S., Sowlat, M. H., Hasheminassab, S., Sandrini, S., Gilardoni, S., Facchini, M. C., Fuzzi, S., and Sioutas, C.: Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7721-7731,, 2017.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) represents one of the biggest environmental health risks. We show that the intrinsic PM toxicity at a rural site, far from traffic emissions, is comparable to that of urban areas heavily impacted by traffic. Potentially toxic, redox-active compounds in PM are efficiently scavenged in the presence of fog but are also produced in fog. These findings provide evidence that atmospheric processing can significantly alter the toxicity of airborne PM.
Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) represents one of the biggest environmental...