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Volume 17, issue 1 | Copyright

Special issue: Results from the ice nucleation research unit (INUIT) (ACP/AMT...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 575-594, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-575-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 12 Jan 2017

Research article | 12 Jan 2017

Online single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment

Susan Schmidt1, Johannes Schneider1, Thomas Klimach1, Stephan Mertes2, Ludwig Paul Schenk2, Piotr Kupiszewski3,a, Joachim Curtius4, and Stephan Borrmann1,5 Susan Schmidt et al.
  • 1Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany
  • 2Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
  • 3Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
  • 4Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
  • 5Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55128 Mainz, Germany
  • anow at: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 14473 Potsdam, Germany

Abstract. In situ single particle analysis of ice particle residuals (IPRs) and out-of-cloud aerosol particles was conducted by means of laser ablation mass spectrometry during the intensive INUIT-JFJ/CLACE campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580ma.s.l.) in January–February 2013. During the 4-week campaign more than 70000 out-of-cloud aerosol particles and 595 IPRs were analyzed covering a particle size diameter range from 100nm to 3µm. The IPRs were sampled during 273h while the station was covered by mixed-phase clouds at ambient temperatures between −27 and −6°C. The identification of particle types is based on laboratory studies of different types of biological, mineral and anthropogenic aerosol particles. The outcome of these laboratory studies was characteristic marker peaks for each investigated particle type. These marker peaks were applied to the field data. In the sampled IPRs we identified a larger number fraction of primary aerosol particles, like soil dust (13±5%) and minerals (11±5%), in comparison to out-of-cloud aerosol particles (2.4±0.4 and 0.4±0.1%, respectively). Additionally, anthropogenic aerosol particles, such as particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, were found to be more abundant in the IPRs than in the out-of-cloud aerosol. In the out-of-cloud aerosol we identified a large fraction of aged particles (31±5%), including organic material and secondary inorganics, whereas this particle type was much less abundant (2.7±1.3%) in the IPRs. In a selected subset of the data where a direct comparison between out-of-cloud aerosol particles and IPRs in air masses with similar origin was possible, a pronounced enhancement of biological particles was found in the IPRs.

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Ice formation in clouds is an important process in the formation of precipitation, especially at midlatitudes, but the exact properties of the aerosol particles that initiate freezing is not fully understood. We analysed residual particles from ice crystals sampled from mixed phase clouds. The results show that the residues contain a larger relative amount of soil dust and minerals, but also particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, than the out-of-cloud aerosol.
Ice formation in clouds is an important process in the formation of precipitation, especially at...
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