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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 17, issue 9 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5665-5675, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 05 May 2017

Research article | 05 May 2017

The constraint of CO2 measurements made onboard passenger aircraft on surface–atmosphere fluxes: the impact of transport model errors in vertical mixing

Shreeya Verma1, Julia Marshall1, Christoph Gerbig1, Christian Rödenbeck1, and Kai Uwe Totsche2 Shreeya Verma et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • 2Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich Schiller University, 07749 Jena, Germany

Abstract. Inaccurate representation of atmospheric processes by transport models is a dominant source of uncertainty in inverse analyses and can lead to large discrepancies in the retrieved flux estimates. We investigate the impact of uncertainties in vertical transport as simulated by atmospheric transport models on fluxes retrieved using vertical profiles from aircraft as an observational constraint. Our numerical experiments are based on synthetic data with realistic spatial and temporal sampling of aircraft measurements. The impact of such uncertainties on the flux retrieved using the ground-based network and those retrieved using the aircraft profiles are compared. We find that the posterior flux retrieved using aircraft profiles is less susceptible to errors in boundary layer height, compared to the ground-based network. This finding highlights a benefit of utilizing atmospheric observations made onboard aircraft over surface measurements for flux estimation using inverse methods. We further use synthetic vertical profiles of CO2 in an inversion to estimate the potential of these measurements, which will be made available through the IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) project in the future, in constraining the regional carbon budget. Our results show that the regions of tropical Africa and temperate Eurasia, that are under-constrained by the existing surface-based network, will benefit the most from these measurements, with a reduction of posterior flux uncertainty of about 7 to 10%.

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The inverse modelling approach for estimating surface fluxes is based on transport models that have an imperfect representation of atmospheric processes like vertical mixing. In this paper, we show how assimilating commercial aircraft-based vertical profiles of CO2 into inverse models can help reduce error due to the transport model, thus providing more accurate estimates of surface fluxes. Further, the reduction in flux uncertainty due to aircraft profiles from the IAGOS project is quantified.
The inverse modelling approach for estimating surface fluxes is based on transport models that...