Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623-5641, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-5623-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
03 May 2017
Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations
Yuqin Liu1,2,3, Gerrit de Leeuw1,3,4, Veli-Matti Kerminen3, Jiahua Zhang1, Putian Zhou3, Wei Nie5, Ximeng Qi5, Juan Hong3, Yonghong Wang3, Aijun Ding5, Huadong Guo1, Olaf Krüger3, Markku Kulmala3, and Tuukka Petäjä3 1Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
4Finish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Unit, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
5Institute for Climate and Global Change Research & School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing, China
Abstract. Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD < 0.35 and AOD > 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT–CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)–CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover horizontally. However, unstable atmospheric conditions favour thicker and higher clouds. Dynamically, upward motion of air parcels can also facilitate the formation of thicker and higher clouds. Overall, the present study provides an understanding of the impact of aerosols on cloud properties over the YRD. In addition to the amount of aerosol particles (or AOD), evidence is provided that aerosol types and ambient environmental conditions need to be considered to understand the observed relationships between cloud properties and AOD.

Citation: Liu, Y., de Leeuw, G., Kerminen, V.-M., Zhang, J., Zhou, P., Nie, W., Qi, X., Hong, J., Wang, Y., Ding, A., Guo, H., Krüger, O., Kulmala, M., and Petäjä, T.: Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623-5641, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-5623-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically...
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