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Volume 17, issue 23 | Copyright

Special issue: The community version of the Weather Research and Forecasting...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14393-14413, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 05 Dec 2017

Research article | 05 Dec 2017

WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over south Asia during the pre-monsoon: effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms

Amit Sharma1,2, Narendra Ojha2, Andrea Pozzer2, Kathleen A. Mar3, Gufran Beig4, Jos Lelieveld2,5, and Sachin S. Gunthe1 Amit Sharma et al.
  • 1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India
  • 2Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 3Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany
  • 4Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India
  • 5Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus

Abstract. We evaluate numerical simulations of surface ozone mixing ratios over the south Asian region during the pre-monsoon season, employing three different emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with the second-generation Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2) chemical mechanism: the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research – Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (EDGAR-HTAP), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment phase B (INTEX-B) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). Evaluation of diurnal variability in modelled ozone compared to observational data from 15 monitoring stations across south Asia shows the model ability to reproduce the clean, rural and polluted urban conditions over this region. In contrast to the diurnal average, the modelled ozone mixing ratios during noontime, i.e. hours of intense photochemistry (11:30–16:30IST – Indian Standard Time – UTC +5:30), are found to differ among the three inventories. This suggests that evaluations of the modelled ozone limited to 24h average are insufficient to assess uncertainties associated with ozone buildup. HTAP generally shows 10–30ppbv higher noontime ozone mixing ratios than SEAC4RS and INTEX-B, especially over the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), central India and southern India. The HTAP simulation repeated with the alternative Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical mechanism showed even more strongly enhanced surface ozone mixing ratios due to vertical mixing of enhanced ozone that has been produced aloft. Our study indicates the need to also evaluate the O3 precursors across a network of stations and the development of high-resolution regional inventories for the anthropogenic emissions over south Asia accounting for year-to-year changes to further reduce uncertainties in modelled ozone over this region.

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We evaluate the numerical simulations of surface ozone during pre-monsoon season against a network of stations including clean, rural and polluted urban environments in the south Asian region. Significant effects of the employed emission inventory and chemical mechanism on the simulated ozone are found during the noon hours of intense photochemistry. The presented evaluation on the diurnal timescale would have implications for assessing ozone buildup and impacts on human health and crop yields.
We evaluate the numerical simulations of surface ozone during pre-monsoon season against a...