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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13891-13901, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13891-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
22 Nov 2017
Insight into the in-cloud formation of oxalate based on in situ measurement by single particle mass spectrometry
Guohua Zhang1, Qinhao Lin1,2, Long Peng1,2, Yuxiang Yang1,2, Yuzhen Fu1,2, Xinhui Bi1, Mei Li3, Duohong Chen4, Jianxin Chen5, Zhang Cai6, Xinming Wang1, Ping'an Peng1, Guoying Sheng1, and Zhen Zhou3 1State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, PR China
3Institute of Mass Spectrometer and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China
4State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Air Quality Monitoring, Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Center, Guangzhou 510308, PR China
5Shaoguan Environmental Monitoring Center, Shaoguan 512026, PR China
6John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Abstract. While ground-based works suggest the significance of in-cloud production (or aqueous formation) to oxalate, direct evidence is rare. With the in situ measurements performed at a remote mountain site (1690 m above sea level) in southern China, we first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual (cloud RES), the cloud interstitial (cloud INT), and ambient (cloud-free) particles by single particle mass spectrometry. The results support the growing evidence that in-cloud aqueous reactions promote the formation of oxalate, with  ∼  15 % of the cloud RES and cloud INT particles containing oxalate in contrast to only  ∼  5 % of the cloud-free particles. Furthermore, individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation of oxalate during in-cloud processing. Oxalate was predominantly (> 70 % in number) internally mixed with the aged biomass-burning particles, highlighting the impact of biomass burning on the formation of oxalate. In contrast, oxalate was underrepresented in aged elemental carbon particles, although they represented the largest fraction of the detected particles. It can be interpreted by the individual particle mixing state that the aged biomass-burning particles contained an abundance of organic components serving as precursors for oxalate. Through the analysis of the relationship between oxalate and organic acids (−45[HCO2], −59[CH3CO2], −71[C2H3CO2], −73[C2HO3]), the results show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the conversion of organic acids to oxalate. The abundance of glyoxylate associated with the aged biomass-burning particles is a controlling factor for the in-cloud production of oxalate. Since only limited information on oxalate is available in the free troposphere, the results also provide an important reference for future understanding of the abundance, evolution, and climate impacts of oxalate.

Citation: Zhang, G., Lin, Q., Peng, L., Yang, Y., Fu, Y., Bi, X., Li, M., Chen, D., Chen, J., Cai, Z., Wang, X., Peng, P., Sheng, G., and Zhou, Z.: Insight into the in-cloud formation of oxalate based on in situ measurement by single particle mass spectrometry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13891-13901, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13891-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
We first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual, the cloud interstitial, and cloud-free particles by single particle mass spectrometry. Individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation and evolution of oxalate during in-cloud processing. The data show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the formation of oxalate from organic acids that were strongly associated with the aged biomass burning particles.
We first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual, the...
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