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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12617-12632, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12617-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
24 Oct 2017
Wintertime aerosol optical and radiative properties in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC field campaign
Chaeyoon Cho1, Sang-Woo Kim1, Maheswar Rupakheti2, Jin-Soo Park3, Arnico Panday4, Soon-Chang Yoon1, Ji-Hyoung Kim1, Hyunjae Kim3, Haeun Jeon3, Minyoung Sung3, Bong Mann Kim5, Seungkyu K. Hong1,6, Rokjin J. Park1, Dipesh Rupakheti7, Khadak Singh Mahata2, Puppala Siva Praveen4, Mark G. Lawrence2, and Brent Holben8 1School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, South Korea
2Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Berliner Str. 130, 14467 Potsdam, Germany
3National Institute of Environmental Research, 22689 Incheon, South Korea
4International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, 44700 Kathmandu, Nepal
5iGBu, Corona, CA  92882, USA
6National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, 63568 Seogwipo, South Korea
7Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China
8NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Abstract. Particulate air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley has reached severe levels that are mainly due to uncontrolled emissions and the location of the urban area in a bowl-shaped basin with associated local wind circulations. The AERONET measurements from December 2012 to August 2014 revealed a mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of approximately 0.30 at 675 nm during winter, which is similar to that of the post-monsoon but half of that of the pre-monsoon AOD (0.63). The distinct seasonal variations are closely related to regional-scale monsoon circulations over South Asia and emissions in the Kathmandu Valley. During the SusKat-ABC campaign (December 2012–February 2013), a noticeable increase in both aerosol scattering (σs; 313  →  577 Mm−1 at 550 nm) and absorption (σa; 98  →  145 Mm−1 at 520 nm) coefficients occurred before and after 4 January 2013. This can be attributed to the increase in wood-burned fires due to a temperature drop and the start of firing at nearby brick kilns. The σs value in the Kathmandu Valley was a factor of 0.5 lower than that in polluted cities in India. The σa value in the Kathmandu Valley was approximately 2 times higher than that at severely polluted urban sites in India. The aerosol mass scattering efficiency of 2.6 m2 g−1 from PM10 measurements in the Kathmandu Valley is similar to that reported in urban areas. However, the aerosol mass absorption efficiency was determined to be 11 m2 g−1 from PM10 measurements, which is higher than that reported in the literature for pure soot particles (7.5 ± 1.2 m2 g−1). This might be due to the fact that most of the carbonaceous aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley were thought to be mostly externally mixed with other aerosols under dry conditions due to a short travel time from their sources. The σs and σa values and the equivalent black carbon (EBC) mass concentration reached up to 757 Mm−1, 224 Mm−1, and 29 µg m−3 at 08:00 LST (local standard time), respectively but decreased dramatically during the daytime (09:00–18:00 LST), to one-quarter of the morning average (06:00–09:00 LST) due to the development of valley winds and an atmospheric bounder layer. The σs and σa values and the EBC concentration remained almost constant during the night at the levels of 410 Mm−1, 130 Mm−1, and 17 µg m−3, respectively. The average aerosol direct radiative forcings over the intensive measurement period were estimated to be −6.9 ± 1.4 W m−2 (top of the atmosphere) and −20.8 ± 4.6 W m−2 (surface). Therefore, the high atmospheric forcing (i.e., 13.9 ± 3.6 W m−2) and forcing efficiency (74.8 ± 24.2 W m−2τ−1) can be attributed to the high portion of light-absorbing aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley, as indicated by the high black carbon (or elemental carbon) to sulphate ratio (1.5 ± 1.1).

Citation: Cho, C., Kim, S.-W., Rupakheti, M., Park, J.-S., Panday, A., Yoon, S.-C., Kim, J.-H., Kim, H., Jeon, H., Sung, M., Kim, B. M., Hong, S. K., Park, R. J., Rupakheti, D., Mahata, K. S., Praveen, P. S., Lawrence, M. G., and Holben, B.: Wintertime aerosol optical and radiative properties in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC field campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12617-12632, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12617-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
We investigated the optical and chemical properties and direct radiative effects of aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley. We concluded that the ratio of light-absorbing to scattering aerosols as well as the concentration of light-absorbing aerosols is much higher at Kathmandu than other comparable regions, and it contributes to a great atmospheric absorption efficiency. This study provides unprecedented insights into aerosol optical properties and their radiative forcings in the Kathmandu Valley.
We investigated the optical and chemical properties and direct radiative effects of aerosols in...
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