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Volume 16, issue 14 | Copyright

Special issue: CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8749-8766, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-8749-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 18 Jul 2016

Research article | 18 Jul 2016

Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

Julie Vincent1, Benoit Laurent1, Rémi Losno1,a, Elisabeth Bon Nguyen1, Pierre Roullet2, Stéphane Sauvage3, Servanne Chevaillier1, Patrice Coddeville3, Noura Ouboulmane1, Alcide Giorgio di Sarra4, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez5,6, Damiano Sferlazzo4, Ana Massanet6, Sylvain Triquet1, Rafael Morales Baquero7, Michel Fornier8, Cyril Coursier9, Karine Desboeufs1, François Dulac10, and Gilles Bergametti1 Julie Vincent et al.
  • 1Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR7583 CNRS, Université Paris Denis Diderot, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, Paris, France
  • 2Ingénierie, Conseil, Assistance technique, Recherche, Étude (ICARE Ingénierie), Paris, France
  • 3Département Sciences de l'Atmosphère et Génie de l'Environnement (SAGE), Mines Douai, 59508, Douai, France
  • 4Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses (ENEA), Santa Maria di Galeria, Italy
  • 5Andalusian Marine Science Institute (ICMAN, CSIC), Cádiz, Spain
  • 6Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA-CSIC/UIB), Balearic Island, Spain
  • 7Departamento Ecologia, Universitad Granada, Granada, Spain
  • 8Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), UMR7294 CNRS, UMR235 IRD, Université Aix-Marseille, Université du Sud Toulon-Var, Marseille, France
  • 9Parc national des Ecrins, Le Casset, France
  • 10Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), UMR 8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • apresent address: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), UMR7154 CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Denis Diderot, Paris, France

Abstract. Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French) have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps). Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4gm−2year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′N, 12°37′E) to 1gm−2year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′N, 6°28′E). The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2gm−2wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1gm−2wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5gm−2wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1gm−2year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14gm−2year−1). From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than 80% of the major dust deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface) is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46% to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

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To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA have been deployed in the western Mediterranean basin (Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset) during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period.
To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition...
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