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Volume 16, issue 8 | Copyright

Special issue: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785-4797, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4785-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 19 Apr 2016

Research article | 19 Apr 2016

Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

S. T. Martin1, P. Artaxo2, L. A. T. Machado3, A. O. Manzi4, R. A. F. Souza5, C. Schumacher6, J. Wang7, M. O. Andreae8, H. M. J. Barbosa2, J. Fan9, G. Fisch10, A. H. Goldstein11, A. Guenther12, J. L. Jimenez13, U. Pöschl8, M. A. Silva Dias2, J. N. Smith12, and M. Wendisch14 S. T. Martin et al.
  • 1Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • 2University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 3National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil
  • 4National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
  • 5Amazonas State University, Amazonas, Brazil
  • 6Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
  • 7Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA
  • 8Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Departments of Biogeochemistry and Multiphase Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 9Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA
  • 10Aeronautic and Space Institute, São José dos Campos, Brazil
  • 11University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
  • 12University of California, Irvine, California, USA
  • 13University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 14University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract. The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and biomass burning seasons, respectively. The Manaus plume is present year-round, and it is transported by prevailing northeasterly and easterly winds in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. This introduction also organizes information relevant to many papers in the special issue. Information is provided on the vehicle fleet, power plants, and industrial activities of Manaus. The mesoscale and synoptic meteorologies relevant to the two IOPs are presented. Regional and long-range transport of emissions during the two IOPs is discussed based on satellite observations across South America and Africa. Fire locations throughout the airshed are detailed. In conjunction with the context and motivation of GoAmazon2014/5 as presented in this introduction, research articles including thematic overview articles are anticipated in this special issue to describe the detailed results and findings of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment.

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The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place...
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