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Volume 16, issue 6
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3761–3812, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3761-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3761–3812, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3761-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 22 Mar 2016

Research article | 22 Mar 2016

Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 °C global warming could be dangerous

James Hansen et al.

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Cited articles

Abdalati, W., Krabill, W., Frederick, E., Manizade, S., Martin, C., Sonntag, J., Swift, R., Thomas, R., Yungel, J., and Koerner, R.: Elevation changes of ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, J. Geophy. Res., 109, F04007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JF000045, 2004.
Adkins, J. F., Boyle, E. A., Keigwin, L., and Cortijo, E.: Variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the last interglacial period, Nature, 390, 154–156, 1997.
Ahn, J., Brrok, E.J., Schmittner, A., and Kreutz, K.: Abrupt change in atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18711, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053018, 2012.
Alley, R. B., Dupont, T. K., Parizek, B. R., Anandakrishnan, S., Lawson, D. E., Larson, G. J., and Evenson, E. B.: Outburst flooding and the initiation of ice-stream surges in response to climatic cooling: a hypothesis, Geomorphology, 75, 76–89, 2006.
Álvarez-Solas, J., Charbit, S., Ritz, C., Paillard, D., Ramstein, G., and Dumas, C.: Links between ocean temperature and iceberg discharge during Heinrich events, Nat. Geosci., 3, 122–126, 2010.
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We use climate simulations, paleoclimate data and modern observations to infer that continued high fossil fuel emissions will yield cooling of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic surfaces, slowdown and shutdown of SMOC & AMOC, increasingly powerful storms and nonlinear sea level rise reaching several meters in 50–150 years, effects missed in IPCC reports because of omission of ice sheet melt and an insensitivity of most climate models, likely due to excessive ocean mixing.
We use climate simulations, paleoclimate data and modern observations to infer that continued...
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