Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 365-382, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-365-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
18 Jan 2016
Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations
P. G. Simmonds1, M. Rigby1, A. J. Manning2, M. F. Lunt1, S. O'Doherty1, A. McCulloch1, P. J. Fraser4, S. Henne5, M. K. Vollmer5, J. Mühle3, R. F. Weiss3, P. K. Salameh3, D. Young1, S. Reimann5, A. Wenger1, T. Arnold2, C. M. Harth3, P. B. Krummel4, L. P. Steele4, B. L. Dunse4, B. R. Miller14, C. R. Lunder6, O. Hermansen6, N. Schmidbauer6, T. Saito7, Y. Yokouchi7, S. Park8, S. Li9, B. Yao10, L. X. Zhou10, J. Arduini11, M. Maione11, R. H. J. Wang12, D. Ivy13, and R. G. Prinn13 1Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
2Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
3Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
4CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale, VIC 3195, Australia
5Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Dubendorf, 8600, Switzerland
6Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), 2027 Kjeller, Norway
7Centre for Environmental Measurement and Analysis, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Japan
8Department of Oceanography, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Republic of Korea
9Kyungpook Institute of Oceanography, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Republic of Korea
10Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS), Beijing, 10081, China
11Department of Basic Sciences and Foundations, University of Urbino, 61029 Urbino, Italy
12School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
13Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
14Global Monitoring Division, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Abstract. High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994–2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994, reaching a maximum annual global growth rate of 0.84 ± 0.05 ppt yr−1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr−1 in 2010 with a further decline to an annual average rate of growth in 2013–2014 of −0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr−1. The annual average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mole fraction in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to an annual average mole fraction of 10.1 ppt in 2014. Average annual mole fractions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1998 and 2014 were 0.84 and 4.5 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr−1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr−1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr−1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr−1. Analysis of mole fraction enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called “bottom up” emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on national consumption data. There appears to be a significant underestimate ( >  20 Gg) of “bottom-up” reported emissions of HFC-152a, possibly arising from largely underestimated USA emissions and undeclared Asian emissions.

Citation: Simmonds, P. G., Rigby, M., Manning, A. J., Lunt, M. F., O'Doherty, S., McCulloch, A., Fraser, P. J., Henne, S., Vollmer, M. K., Mühle, J., Weiss, R. F., Salameh, P. K., Young, D., Reimann, S., Wenger, A., Arnold, T., Harth, C. M., Krummel, P. B., Steele, L. P., Dunse, B. L., Miller, B. R., Lunder, C. R., Hermansen, O., Schmidbauer, N., Saito, T., Yokouchi, Y., Park, S., Li, S., Yao, B., Zhou, L. X., Arduini, J., Maione, M., Wang, R. H. J., Ivy, D., and Prinn, R. G.: Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 365-382, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-365-2016, 2016.
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Short summary
We report regional and global emissions estimates of HFC-152a using high frequency measurements from 11 observing sites and archived air samples dating back to 1978 together with atmospheric transport models. The "bottom-up" emissions of HFC-152a reported to the UNFCCC appear to significantly underestimate those reported here from observations. This discrepancy we suggest arises from largely underestimated USA and undeclared Asian emissions.
We report regional and global emissions estimates of HFC-152a using high frequency measurements...
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