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Volume 16, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899-11913, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11899-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899-11913, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11899-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 23 Sep 2016

Research article | 23 Sep 2016

Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

Ivan Kourtchev1,2, Ricardo H. M. Godoi3, Sarah Connors1, James G. Levine4, Alex T. Archibald1,5, Ana F. L. Godoi3, Sarah L. Paralovo3, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa3, Rodrigo A. F. Souza6, Antonio O. Manzi7, Roger Seco8, Steve Sjostedt9, Jeong-Hoo Park10, Alex Guenther8,11, Saewung Kim8, James Smith12,13, Scot T. Martin14,15, and Markus Kalberer1 Ivan Kourtchev et al.
  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK
  • 2Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
  • 3Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil
  • 4School of Geography Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
  • 5NCAS climate, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK
  • 6State University of Amazonas, Av. Darcy Vergas, 1200, 69065-020, Manaus-AM, Brazil
  • 7Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Clima e Ambiente (CLIAMB), Manaus-AM, Brazil
  • 8Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
  • 9NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 10Air Quality Forecasting Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Republic of Korea
  • 11Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
  • 12Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 13Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
  • 14School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  • 15Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Abstract. The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60% of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA) were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS) was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic–biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

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