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Volume 15, issue 22
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13133–13144, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-13133-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13133–13144, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-13133-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 27 Nov 2015

Research article | 27 Nov 2015

Estimating ground-level PM2.5 in eastern China using aerosol optical depth determined from the GOCI satellite instrument

J.-W. Xu1, R. V. Martin1,2, A. van Donkelaar1, J. Kim3, M. Choi3, Q. Zhang4,5, G. Geng4,5, Y. Liu6, Z. Ma6,7, L. Huang7, Y. Wang4,8,9, H. Chen10, H. Che11, P. Lin12, and N. Lin13 J.-W. Xu et al.
  • 1Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
  • 2Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • 3Department of Physics and Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 4Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Institute for Global Change Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 5State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 6Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • 7State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
  • 8Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, USA
  • 9Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
  • 10Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 11Institute of Atmospheric Composition, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 12Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 13Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taoyan, Taiwan

Abstract. We determine and interpret fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in eastern China for January to December 2013 at a horizontal resolution of 6 km from aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Korean geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) satellite instrument. We implement a set of filters to minimize cloud contamination in GOCI AOD. Evaluation of filtered GOCI AOD with AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) indicates significant agreement with mean fractional bias (MFB) in Beijing of 6.7 % and northern Taiwan of −1.2 %. We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to relate the total column AOD to the near-surface PM2.5. The simulated PM2.5 / AOD ratio exhibits high consistency with ground-based measurements in Taiwan (MFB = −0.52 %) and Beijing (MFB = −8.0 %). We evaluate the satellite-derived PM2.5 versus the ground-level PM2.5 in 2013 measured by the China Environmental Monitoring Center. Significant agreement is found between GOCI-derived PM2.5 and in situ observations in both annual averages (r2 = 0.66, N = 494) and monthly averages (relative RMSE = 18.3 %), indicating GOCI provides valuable data for air quality studies in Northeast Asia. The GEOS-Chem simulated chemical composition of GOCI-derived PM2.5 reveals that secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) and organic matter are the most significant components. Biofuel emissions in northern China for heating increase the concentration of organic matter in winter. The population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg m−3, with 400 million residents in regions that exceed the Interim Target-1 of the World Health Organization.

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1. GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) retrieval of AOD is consistent with AERONET AOD (RMSE=0.08-0.1) 2. GOCI-derived PM2.5 is in significant agreement with in situ observations (r2=0.66, rRMSE=18.3%) 3. Population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg/m3, threatening the health of its more than 400 million residents 4. Secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) & organic matter are the most significant components of GOCI-derived PM2.5.
1. GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) retrieval of AOD is consistent with AERONET AOD...
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