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Volume 15, issue 21 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12345-12360, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12345-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 09 Nov 2015

Research article | 09 Nov 2015

Quantifying atmospheric nitrogen deposition through a nationwide monitoring network across China

W. Xu1, X. S. Luo1,2, Y. P. Pan3, L. Zhang4, A. H. Tang1, J. L. Shen5, Y. Zhang6, K. H. Li7, Q. H. Wu1, D. W. Yang1, Y. Y. Zhang1, J. Xue1, W. Q. Li8, Q. Q. Li1,9, L. Tang9, S. H. Lu10, T. Liang11, Y. A. Tong11, P. Liu12, Q. Zhang12, Z. Q. Xiong13, X. J. Shi14, L. H. Wu15, W. Q. Shi16, K. Tian17, X. H. Zhong17, K. Shi18, Q. Y. Tang19, L. J. Zhang20, J. L. Huang21, C. E. He22, F. H. Kuang23, B. Zhu23, H. Liu24, X. Jin25, Y. J. Xin25, X. K. Shi26, E. Z. Du27, A. J. Dore28, S. Tang28, J. L. Collett Jr.29, K. Goulding30, Y. X. Sun31, J. Ren32, F. S. Zhang1, and X. J. Liu1 W. Xu et al.
  • 1College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • 2Institute of Plant Nutrition, Resources and Environmental Sciences, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
  • 3State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • 4Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 5Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 4410125, China
  • 6College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • 7Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
  • 8Fujian Institute of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, China
  • 9College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650224, China
  • 10Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, China
  • 11Nature Resource and Environment College, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • 12Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resource, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, China
  • 13College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210009, China
  • 14College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China
  • 15College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
  • 16South Subtropical Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science, Zhanjiang 524091, China
  • 17Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
  • 18College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, China
  • 19College of Agriculture, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
  • 20College of Resources and Environment, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China
  • 21College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • 22Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • 23Institute of Mountain, Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
  • 24Research Institute of Soil & Fertilizer and Agricultural Water Conservation, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China
  • 25The Bureau of Qinghai Meteorology, Xining 810001, China
  • 26Agriculture, Forestry and Water Department of Changdao County, Changdao 265800, China
  • 27State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, and College of Resources Science & Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • 28Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB, UK
  • 29Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
  • 30The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
  • 31Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
  • 32Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130124, China

Abstract. A Nationwide Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring Network (NNDMN) containing 43 monitoring sites was established in China to measure gaseous NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3 in air and/or precipitation from 2010 to 2014. Wet/bulk deposition fluxes of Nr species were collected by precipitation gauge method and measured by continuous-flow analyzer; dry deposition fluxes were estimated using airborne concentration measurements and inferential models. Our observations reveal large spatial variations of atmospheric Nr concentrations and dry and wet/bulk Nr deposition. On a national basis, the annual average concentrations (1.3–47.0 μg N m−3) and dry plus wet/bulk deposition fluxes (2.9–83.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1) of inorganic Nr species are ranked by land use as urban > rural > background sites and by regions as north China > southeast China > southwest China > northeast China > northwest China > Tibetan Plateau, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet/bulk N deposition fluxes were 20.6 ± 11.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and 19.3 ± 9.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1 across China, with reduced N deposition dominating both dry and wet/bulk deposition. Our results suggest atmospheric dry N deposition is equally important to wet/bulk N deposition at the national scale. Therefore, both deposition forms should be included when considering the impacts of N deposition on environment and ecosystem health.

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The annual average concentrations (1.3-47.0µg N m-3) and dry plus wet/bulk deposition fluxes (2.9-83.3kg N ha-1 yr-1) of inorganic Nr species ranked by land use as urban > rural > background sites and by regions as north China > southeast China > southwest China > northeast China > northwest China > Tibetan Plateau, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet/bulk N deposition fluxes were 20.6 ± 11.2 and 19.3 ± 9.2kg kg N ha-1 yr-1 across China, respectively.
The annual average concentrations (1.3-47.0µg N m-3) and dry plus wet/bulk deposition fluxes...
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