Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345-6367, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review article
26 Jun 2014
Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013
J. Ortega1, A. Turnipseed1, A. B. Guenthera,1, T. G. Karlb,1, D. A. Day2, D. Gochis1, J. A. Huffman4,3, A. J. Prennic,5, E. J. T. Levin5, S. M. Kreidenweis5, P. J. DeMott5, Y. Tobod,5, E. G. Patton1, A. Hodzic1, Y. Y. Cui6, P. C. Harleye,1, R. S. Hornbrook1, E. C. Apel1, R. K. Monson7, A. S. D. Eller8,f, J. P. Greenberg1, M. C. Barth1, P. Campuzano-Jost2, B. B. Palm2, J. L. Jimenez2, A. C. Aiken9, M. K. Dubey9, C. Geron10, J. Offenberg11, M. G. Ryan12,13, P. J. Fornwalt13, S. C. Pryor14,g, F. N. Keutsch15, J. P. DiGangi15,h, A. W. H. Chan16,i, A. H. Goldstein16,17, G. M. Wolfe18,19, S. Kimj,1, L. Kaser20,k, R. Schnitzhofer20, A. Hansel20, C. A. Cantrelll,1, R. L. Mauldinl,1, and J. N. Smith21,1 1National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307, USA
2University of Colorado, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CIRES, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
3Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020, Mainz, Germany
4University of Denver, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Denver, CO 80208, USA
5Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
6Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, MO 63103, USA
7School of Natural Resources and the Environment and Laboratory for Tree Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
8Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
9Los Alamos National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
10US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
11United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
12National Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
13United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 West Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
14Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington IN 47405, USA
15Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
16Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
17Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
18Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
19Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore County, MD 21250, USA
20Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
21Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
anow at: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Atmospheric Sciences Division, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352, USA
bnow at: University of Innsbruck, Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGI), Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
cnow at: Air Resources Division, National Park Service, Lakewood, CO 80225, USA
dnow at: National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan
enow at: Department of Plant Physiology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu 51014, Estonia
fnow at: Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
gnow at: Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
hnow at: NASA Langley Research Center, Chemistry and Dynamics Branch, Hampton, VA 23681, USA
inow at: Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada
jnow at: Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
know at: National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307, USA
lnow at: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Abstract. The Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) project seeks to understand the feedbacks and inter-relationships between hydrology, biogenic emissions, carbon assimilation, aerosol properties, clouds and associated feedbacks within water-limited ecosystems. The Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory (MEFO) was established in 2008 by the National Center for Atmospheric Research to address many of the BEACHON research objectives, and it now provides a fixed field site with significant infrastructure. MEFO is a mountainous, semi-arid ponderosa pine-dominated forest site that is normally dominated by clean continental air but is periodically influenced by anthropogenic sources from Colorado Front Range cities. This article summarizes the past and ongoing research activities at the site, and highlights some of the significant findings that have resulted from these measurements. These activities include

- soil property measurements;
- hydrological studies;
- measurements of high-frequency turbulence parameters;
- eddy covariance flux measurements of water, energy, aerosols and carbon dioxide through the canopy;
- determination of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions and their influence on regional atmospheric chemistry;
- aerosol number and mass distributions;
- chemical speciation of aerosol particles;
- characterization of ice and cloud condensation nuclei;
- trace gas measurements; and
- model simulations using coupled chemistry and meteorology.

In addition to various long-term continuous measurements, three focused measurement campaigns with state-of-the-art instrumentation have taken place since the site was established, and two of these studies are the subjects of this special issue: BEACHON-ROCS (Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study, 2010) and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study, 2011).

Citation: Ortega, J., Turnipseed, A., Guenther, A. B., Karl, T. G., Day, D. A., Gochis, D., Huffman, J. A., Prenni, A. J., Levin, E. J. T., Kreidenweis, S. M., DeMott, P. J., Tobo, Y., Patton, E. G., Hodzic, A., Cui, Y. Y., Harley, P. C., Hornbrook, R. S., Apel, E. C., Monson, R. K., Eller, A. S. D., Greenberg, J. P., Barth, M. C., Campuzano-Jost, P., Palm, B. B., Jimenez, J. L., Aiken, A. C., Dubey, M. K., Geron, C., Offenberg, J., Ryan, M. G., Fornwalt, P. J., Pryor, S. C., Keutsch, F. N., DiGangi, J. P., Chan, A. W. H., Goldstein, A. H., Wolfe, G. M., Kim, S., Kaser, L., Schnitzhofer, R., Hansel, A., Cantrell, C. A., Mauldin, R. L., and Smith, J. N.: Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345-6367,, 2014.
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