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Volume 14, issue 22 | Copyright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181-12194, 2014
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-12181-2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 19 Nov 2014

Research article | 19 Nov 2014

Atmospheric amines and ammonia measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS)

Y. You1, V. P. Kanawade2, J. A. de Gouw3, A. B. Guenther4,5, S. Madronich6, M. R. Sierra-Hernández7, M. Lawler8,6, J. N. Smith8,6, S. Takahama9, G. Ruggeri9, A. Koss3, K. Olson10, K. Baumann11, R. J. Weber12, A. Nenes12,13, H. Guo12, E. S. Edgerton11, L. Porcelli1, W. H. Brune14, A. H. Goldstein10, and S.-H. Lee1 Y. You et al.
  • 1Kent State University, College of Public Health, Kent, Ohio, USA
  • 2Indian Institute of Technology - Kanpur, Department of Civil Engineering and Center for Environmental Science & Engineering, Kanpur, India
  • 3National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Chemical Science Division, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 4Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA
  • 5Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pullman, Washington, USA
  • 6National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 7Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA
  • 8University of Eastern Finland, Applied Physics Department, Kuopio, Finland
  • 9Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute d'Ingenierie de l'Environment, Lausanne, Suisse, Switzerland
  • 10University of California – Berkeley, Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, Berkeley, California, USA
  • 11Atmospheric Research and Analysis, Inc., Morrisville-Cary, North Carolina, USA
  • 12Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  • 13Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  • 14Penn State University, Department of Meteorology, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

Abstract. We report measurements of ambient amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site during the summer. At the forest site, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected, and they both showed temperature dependencies. Aerosol-phase amines measured thermal-desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer (TDCIMS) showed a higher mass fraction in the evening with cooler temperatures and lower in the afternoon with warmer temperatures, a trend opposite to the gas-phase amines. Concentrations of aerosol-phase primary amines measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) from micron and submicron particles were 2 orders of magnitude higher than the gas-phase amines. These results indicate that gas to particle conversion is one of the major processes that control the ambient amine concentrations at this forest site. Temperature dependencies of C3-amines and ammonia also imply reversible processes of evaporation of these nitrogen-containing compounds from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition to soil surfaces at nighttime. During the transported biomass burning plume events, various amines (C1–C6) appeared at the pptv level, indicating that biomass burning is a substantial source of amines in the southeastern US. At the moderately polluted Kent site, there were higher concentrations of C1- to C6-amines (pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv). C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were well correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed frequent spikes during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Higher amine concentrations measured at the polluted site than at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic emission sources of amines.

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Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the...
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