Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1-87, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
02 Jan 2012
A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe
J. Kukkonen1, T. Olsson1,2, D. M. Schultz1,2,3, A. Baklanov4, T. Klein5, A. I. Miranda6, A. Monteiro6, M. Hirtl7, V. Tarvainen1, M. Boy2, V.-H. Peuch8,9, A. Poupkou10, I. Kioutsioukis10, S. Finardi11, M. Sofiev1, R. Sokhi12, K. E. J. Lehtinen13,14, K. Karatzas15, R. San José16, M. Astitha17, G. Kallos18, M. Schaap19, E. Reimer20, H. Jakobs21, and K. Eben22 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
2Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
3Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
4Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
5Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden
6CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
7Section of Environmental Meteorology, Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna, Austria
8Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex, France
9ECMWF, Reading, UK
10Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
11ARIANET s.r.l., Milano, Italy
12University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
13Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio, Finland
14Dept. Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
15Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
16Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
17Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC), The Cyprus Institute, Cyprus
18Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
19TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands
20Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
21University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
22Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
Abstract. Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.

Citation: Kukkonen, J., Olsson, T., Schultz, D. M., Baklanov, A., Klein, T., Miranda, A. I., Monteiro, A., Hirtl, M., Tarvainen, V., Boy, M., Peuch, V.-H., Poupkou, A., Kioutsioukis, I., Finardi, S., Sofiev, M., Sokhi, R., Lehtinen, K. E. J., Karatzas, K., San José, R., Astitha, M., Kallos, G., Schaap, M., Reimer, E., Jakobs, H., and Eben, K.: A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1-87,, 2012.
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