Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4015-4024, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
29 Apr 2011
Characteristics of immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station in Antarctica
K. Ardon-Dryer1,2, Z. Levin1,3, and R. P. Lawson4 1Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Israel
2The Porter School of Environmental Studies, Tel Aviv University, Israel
3Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
4SPEC Incorporated, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Abstract. The effectiveness of aerosols as immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station was investigated during January and February 2009 using the FRIDGE-TAU. The analysis consisted of testing the freezing temperature of about 100–130 drops per sample containing aerosols collected at ground level and on a balloon lifted to different heights. All the drops froze between −18 °C and −27 °C. The temperature in which 50 % of the drops froze occurred at −24 °C, while nuclei concentration of 1 L−1 at −23 °C was calculated. Meteorological conditions such as wind speed, ice precipitation as well as the trajectories of the air masses affected the ice nuclei concentrations. Higher concentrations were observed on days when the winds were stronger or when the air mass originated from the sea.

Citation: Ardon-Dryer, K., Levin, Z., and Lawson, R. P.: Characteristics of immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4015-4024,, 2011.
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