Modeling the feedback between aerosol and meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer during a severe fog–haze event over the North China Plain
Summary: By using an online coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem), the increase of surface PM2.5 concentration is estimated to be up to 30% during a severe fog--haze event (10--15 January 2013) over North China Plain owing to the aerosol-induced decreased surface temperature, wind speed and atmosphere boundary layer height, increased surface relative humidity, and more stable atmosphere. A mechanism of positive feedback exists and contributes to the formation of fog--haze events.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4279-4295, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4279-2015, 2015
An overview of regional and local characteristics of aerosols in South Africa using satellite, ground, and modeling data
Summary: A decadal aerosol climatology of South Africa's major metropolitan areas is presented, utilizing data from multiple satellite platforms and 19 ground-monitoring sites. Remotely sensed data are dominated by a seasonal signal corresponding to transported biomass burning during austral spring, while ground data are dominated by domestic burning in low-income areas during austral winter. We report poor agreement between satellite- and ground-based aerosol measurements.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4259-4278, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4259-2015, 2015
Study of a prototypical convective boundary layer observed during BLLAST: contributions by large-scale forcings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4241-4257, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4241-2015, 2015
Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities
Summary: We have observed the formation of colored organic surface films on solutions of propanal and sulfuric acid at acidities chosen to mimic the highly acidic aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The films were found to be composed of aldol condensation products and polyacetals. If such species also form coatings on atmospheric aerosols, they could impact climate by changing the chemical, optical and cloud-forming properties of aerosols.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4225-4239, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4225-2015, 2015
The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991
Summary: While global stratospheric O3 has begun to recover, there are localized regions where O3 has decreased since 1991. O3 in the mid-stratosphere is very sensitive to nitrogen chemistry, with increased NOy resulting in decreased O3. We show how the observed O3 changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere can be caused by long-term variations in dynamics. These variations result in a decrease in N2O, an increase in NOy, and a resulting decrease in O3.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4215-4224, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4215-2015, 2015
Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers
Summary: We present an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of organic vapor--wall deposition in Teflon chambers and develop an empirical model to predict the wall-induced deposition rate of intermediate/semi/non-volatility organic vapors in chambers.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4197-4214, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4197-2015, 2015
Absorption of aerosols above clouds from POLDER/PARASOL measurements and estimation of their direct radiative effect
Summary: This study presents an original method to evaluate the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the cloud optical thickness for aerosol above cloud scenes. It is based on multi-angle total and polarized radiances both provided by the A-train satellite instrument POLDER/PARASOL. This algorithm has been applied together with a radiative transfer code over the South East Atlantic Ocean. The mean direct radiative effect for August and September 2006 is found to be 33.5W.m−2.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4179-4196, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4179-2015, 2015
Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4161-4178, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4161-2015, 2015
Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions
Summary: Our study shows, based on data from three atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers measuring in parallel charged and neutral molecules and molecular clusters, how oxidised organic compounds bind to inorganic ions (e.g. bisulfate, nitrate, ammonium). This ionisation is selective for compounds with lower molar mass due to their limited amount and variety of functional groups. We also found that extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be formed immediately.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4145-4159, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4145-2015, 2015
Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon
Summary: A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles together with an ozonesonde. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4131-4144, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4131-2015, 2015
Characteristics of trace metals in traffic-derived particles in Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan: size distribution, potential source, and fingerprinting metal ratio
Summary: In this work, size distributions and chemical compositions of 36 PM metals emitted from traffic emissions are explored by tunnel experiments. Potential sources of tunnel PM are also identified. Importantly, fingerprinting ratios of wear debris and automotive catalysts are established. The ratios will be good tools for apportioning PM sources in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4117-4130, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4117-2015, 2015
Atmospheric transport simulations in support of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE)
Summary: This paper describes the atmospheric modeling that underlies the science analysis for the NASA Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Summary statistics of the WRF meteorological model performance on a 3.3 km grid indicate good overall agreement with surface and radiosonde observations. The high quality of the WRF meteorological fields inspires confidence in their use to drive the STILT transport model for the purpose of computing surface influence fields (“footprints”).
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4093-4116, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4093-2015, 2015
Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4077-4091, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4077-2015, 2015
On the derivation of particle nucleation rates from experimental formation rates
Summary: The manuscript provides insights into the calculation of new particle formation rates. Generally, formation rates are measured at a diameter which can be substantially larger than the critical size of the newly formed particles. In order to transform the formation rate to a smaller size, a correction needs to be applied. We present a new method to apply this correction which takes into account the effect of self-coagulation.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4063-4075, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4063-2015, 2015
Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign
Summary: This work describes an analysis of measurements of the influence of water uptake on the light-scattering properties of sub- and supermicron-sized particles as observed in the Sacramento, CA, USA region during the 2010 CARES field campaign. The observations are used to derive campaign-average effective hygroscopicity parameters for submicron oxygenated organic aerosol and for supermicron particles, and the influence of chloride displacement reactions on particle hygroscopicity is examined.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4045-4061, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4045-2015, 2015
Corrigendum to "Photosensitised heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of biomass burning aerosol surrogates by ozone using an irradiated rectangular channel flow reactor" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6507–6522, 2013
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4043-4043, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4043-2015, 2015
Trends and drivers of ozone human health and vegetation impact metrics from UK EMEP supersite measurements (1990–2013)
Summary: Health- and vegetation-relevant ozone exposure metrics (SOMO10/SOMO35 and PODY/AOT40 respectively) are analysed between 1990 and 2013 using data from the UK EMEP supersites: Auchencorth Moss, southern Scotland and Harwell, south-east England. Analysis shows that for health-relevant ozone exposure, improvement has been achieved for SOMO35 but not for SOMO10 despite European mitigation strategies reducing precursor emissions. Vegetation impacts based on PODY have also not decreased.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4025-4042, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4025-2015, 2015
The MACC-II 2007–2008 reanalysis: atmospheric dust evaluation and characterization over northern Africa and the Middle East
Summary: Atmospheric mineral dust from a MACC-II short reanalysis (2007-2008) has been evaluated over northern Africa and the Middle East using satellite aerosol products, AERONET data, in situ PM10 concentrations, and extinction vertical profiles. The MACC-II AOD spatial and temporal variability shows good agreement with satellite sensors and AERONET. We find a good agreement in averaged extinction vertical profiles between MACC-II and lidars. MACC correctly reproduces daily to interannual PM10.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3991-4024, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3991-2015, 2015
Evaluation of the GEM-AQ model in the context of the AQMEII Phase 1 project
Summary: In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006 with a resolution of 0.2 × 0.2 degrees. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analyzed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations in the context of regional climate characteristics. The GEM-AQ model performance was characterized for station types, European climatic regions, and seasons.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3971-3990, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3971-2015, 2015
Radiative forcing and climate metrics for ozone precursor emissions: the impact of multi-model averaging
Summary: This study examines quantitatively the impact of methodological choices, in particular of averaging of multi-model ensembles, on climate metrics for ozone precursors. Estimates of the standard deviation of radiative forcing (RF), global warming and temperature potential (GWP, GTP) from ensemble-mean input fields generally overestimate the true value. The multi-model average fields are appropriate for calculating mean metrics, but are not a reliable method for calculating the uncertainty.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3957-3969, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3957-2015, 2015
Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals
Summary: Dimensions of ice crystals increased with an increase in temperature and the L-W relationships of crystals with a given L depended heavily on temperature, whereas the aspect ratio depended only weakly on temperature. The relative frequency of occurrence of plates was much larger in anvil clouds compared to that of columnar crystals (i.e., columns and bullet rosettes), whereas the relative occurrence frequency of columnar crystals was much larger in non-anvil clouds.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3933-3956, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3933-2015, 2015
Simulations of atmospheric OH, O3 and NO3 reactivities within and above the boreal forest
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3909-3932, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3909-2015, 2015
Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations
Summary: This study demonstrated the potential use of MOPITT CO measurements to better understand the CO sources over Alberta. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3893-3908, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3893-2015, 2015
Comparisons of polar processing diagnostics from 34 years of the ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalyses
Summary: We use a comprehensive set of diagnostics to investigate how two widely used modern reanalysis data sets might affect studies of lower stratospheric polar processing and ozone loss. Our results show that the agreement in temperature diagnostics between the two reanalyses improves over time in both hemispheres with increasing assimilation model inputs. This suggests that both data sets are appropriate choices for studies of polar processing in recent winters.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3873-3892, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3873-2015, 2015
Determination of interfacial parameters of a soluble particle in a nonideal solution from measured deliquescence and efflorescence humidities
Summary: To study the growth/shrinking of a hygroscopic nanoparticle during hydration/dehydration in an atmosphere of water vapour we employed a thermodynamic approach. For application to a nanometric sodium chloride particle we extended the original approach and demonstrated how the solution/solute interface energy and the correlation length of a thin solution film can be determined from a combination of experimentally determinable efflorescence and deliquescence humidities with the present calculus.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3851-3871, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3851-2015, 2015
Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3831-3850, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3831-2015, 2015
CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3815-3829, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3815-2015, 2015
Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation
Summary: A new parametrization for cloud droplet nucleation is described. This revised approach makes use of a simple look-up table which is very efficient and computationally very cheap. Adopting this approach further allows for a more accurate treatment of the necessary approximations of supersaturation evolution and ultimately leads to a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation and hence droplet nucleation.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3803-3814, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3803-2015, 2015
High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon
Summary: Interest in numerical wind models continues to increase, especially for models that can simulate winds at relatively high spatial resolution (~100m). However, limited observational data exist for evaluation of model predictive performance. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The data are available to the public at http://www.firemodels.org/index.php/windninja-introduction/windninja-publications.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3785-3801, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3785-2015, 2015
Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol
Summary: This work explores the impact of acidic sulfate aerosol on the formation of SOA from isoprene and 1,3-butadiene. This study expands on previous work by extending the analysis over a broader range of humidities and aerosol liquid water contents. Extending the experiments to a wider range of hydrocarbons and across a more realistic range of humidities provides data of greater atmospheric relevance and contributes to development of acidity-influenced SOA chemistry mechanisms in air quality models.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3773-3783, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3773-2015, 2015
Monsoonal variations in aerosol optical properties and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data in Peninsular Malaysia
Summary: Southeast Asia stands out globally, as it hosts one of the most complex meteorological and environmental conditions, making remote sensing difficult both for AERONET and satellites. Cloud-cleared data leave gaps in our remote sensing data record, and conversely, residual cloud contamination of remotely sensed data causes challenging tasks for scientists studying aerosols. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3755-3771, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3755-2015, 2015
Methane as a diagnostic tracer of changes in the Brewer–Dobson circulation of the stratosphere
Summary: Time series of the satellite-observed stratospheric tracer, CH4, are analyzed to see whether they indicate a significant trend for the hemispheric Brewer--Dobson circulation (BDC) for 1992-2005. Trends in CH4 for the lower stratosphere are generally positive and equivalent to those of the troposphere. However, the Northern Hemisphere BDC is clearly accelerated in the mid-stratosphere (20 to 7hPa). Corresponding trends for the Southern Hemisphere are smaller and less significant.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3739-3754, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3739-2015, 2015
Observations and comparisons of cloud microphysical properties in spring and summertime Arctic stratocumulus clouds during the ACCACIA campaign
Summary: Measurements of cloud microphysics are reported from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions (ACCACIA) campaign. Concentrations of ice particles from two spring and two summer cases are compared with particular attention to the role of secondary ice in these clouds. In addition aerosol measurements were used as input to a primary ice nucleation parameterisation which was compared with observed values of primary ice in these clouds. We found higher concentrations of ice during summer.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3719-3737, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3719-2015, 2015
A new temperature- and humidity-dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation
Summary: Ice nucleation in clouds has a significant influence on the global radiative budget and the hydrological cycle. Several studies have investigated the ice formation in droplets and parameterizations have been developed in order to include immersion freezing in climate models. In contrast, there are fewer studies regarding the conversion of water vapor into ice (so-called deposition nucleation) which is the topic of this paper which investigates deposition nucleation by Arizona Test dust in detail
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3703-3717, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3703-2015, 2015
Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)
Summary: Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687-3701, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3687-2015, 2015
Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect
Summary: This study highlights that there are no effective ways to remove the black carbon exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth’s climate system in the future.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3671-3685, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3671-2015, 2015
OH populations and temperatures from simultaneous spectroscopic observations of 25 bands
Summary: We discuss a high-quality data set of simultaneous observations of 25 OH bands with an astronomical echelle spectrograph. These data allowed us to analyse band-dependent OH populations and temperatures. In particular, we could find different non-LTE contributions to OH rotational temperatures depending on band, line set, and observing time. This is critical for mesopause studies that use these temperatures as a proxy of the true temperatures.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3647-3669, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3647-2015, 2015
Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3629-3646, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3629-2015, 2015
The effects of springtime mid-latitude storms on trace gas composition determined from the MACC reanalysis
Summary: Novel use of combined meteorology and composition reanalysis data and compositing methodologies to characterize pollutant distributions of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) in "typical" intense springtime storms versus the background environment for the period 2003--2012. Clear signals of O3 and CO redistributed horizontally and vertically throughout storms. In particular, the lofting of CO-rich/O3-poor air in the warm conveyor belt and the descent of O3-rich/CO-poor air in the dry intrusion.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3605-3628, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3605-2015, 2015
Multi-model study of chemical and physical controls on transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution to the Arctic
Summary: Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575-3603, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3575-2015, 2015
Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics
Summary: We use observations and model calculations to show that "cold surges" occurring during Northern Hemisphere winter can rapidly transport East Asian pollution to equatorial Southeast Asia. As well as affecting atmospheric composition near the surface, we argue that strong convection can subsequently lift the polluted air masses to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between midlatitude pollution sources and the lower stratosphere.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3565-3573, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3565-2015, 2015
Sensitivity of tropospheric loads and lifetimes of short lived pollutants to fire emissions
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3543-3563, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3543-2015, 2015
Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter
Summary: Emissions from oil and natural gas development in the Upper Green River basin of Wyoming are known to drive wintertime ozone production. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and condensate provide sufficient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to promote episodic ozone formation. A water treatment and recycling facility was identified as a significant source of NMHC, including toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from this facility have a strong influence upon peak ozone measured at downwind sites.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3527-3542, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3527-2015, 2015
The impact of temperature vertical structure on trajectory modeling of stratospheric water vapor
Summary: We investigated the impacts of vertical temperature structures on trajectory simulations of stratospheric dehydration and water vapor by using 1) MERRA temperatures on model levels; 2) GPS temperatures at finer vertical resolutions; and 3) adjusted MERRA temperatures with finer vertical structures induced by waves. We show that despite the fact that temperatures at finer vertical structures tend to dry air by 0.1-0.3ppmv, the interannual variability in different runs is essentially the same.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3517-3526, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3517-2015, 2015
Aerosol processing and CCN formation of an intense Saharan dust plume during the EUCAARI 2008 campaign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3497-3516, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3497-2015, 2015
Step changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implications
Summary: After several decades of declining persistent organic pollutants in the arctic environment due to their global use restriction, some of these toxic chemicals increased in the mid-2000s and undertook statistically significant step changes which coincided with arctic sea ice melting. Results provide statistical evidence for the releasing of toxic chemicals from their reservoirs in the Arctic due to the rapid change in the arctic environment.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3479-3495, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3479-2015, 2015
Estimated desert-dust ice nuclei profiles from polarization lidar: methodology and case studies
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3463-3477, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3463-2015, 2015
Long-term particulate matter modeling for health effect studies in California – Part 1: Model performance on temporal and spatial variations
Summary: Air quality model simulations have been conducted for California from 2000 to 2009 with 4km spatial resolution to provide exposure data for health effect studies. Comprehensive analysis shows that predicted concentrations for many pollutants are in agreement with measurements at monitoring stations, building confidence that the fields may be useful at times and locations where measurements are not available. Data can be downloaded for free at http://faculty.engineering.ucdavis.edu/kleeman/.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3445-3461, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3445-2015, 2015
Total sulfate vs. sulfuric acid monomer concenterations in nucleation studies
Summary: A discrepancy of 2 orders of magnitude was found between the measured sulfuric acid monomer concentration and total sulfate, when measured with independent methods (mass spectrometry and ion chromatography) with the same source of sulphuric acid vapor. The ion chromatography method produces the exact concentrations predicted by empirical equations, and the mass spectrometry method shows significantly lower values. The discrepancy is investigated thoroughly from different points of views.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3429-3443, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3429-2015, 2015
Major contribution of neutral clusters to new particle formation at the interface between the boundary layer and the free troposphere
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3413-3428, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3413-2015, 2015
Using the chemical equilibrium partitioning space to explore factors influencing the phase distribution of compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation
Summary: The manuscript presents a new way to graphically illustrate some of the processes that occur when organic particles form in the atmosphere. In particular, this method makes it possible to see how factors such as the composition of the atmosphere and temperature affect these processes.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3395-3412, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3395-2015, 2015
Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates
Summary: This work focuses on the hygroscopic behavior of NaCl-NaNO3 mixed particles as reacted sea-salt aerosol surrogates. The experimental phase diagrams for their deliquescence and efflorescence are determined, and the efflorescence process is explained. This study has high atmospheric implications, because the observed phases and chemical microstructures are expected to help in elucidating the complexity of real ambient sea salt aerosols, their hygroscopic properties, aqueous phase chemistry, etc.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3379-3393, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3379-2015, 2015
Diel and seasonal changes of biogenic volatile organic compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3359-3378, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3359-2015, 2015
Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3339-3358, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3339-2015, 2015