An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Received: 08 Oct 2008 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 21 Jan 2009 – Published: 26 May 2009Abstract. This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of
chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles,
ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004–2005 period.
The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption
provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission
sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the
emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel
consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors.
A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in
Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC
(Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above
technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are
presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path
taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg
from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg
from aircraft for 2004–2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality
following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small
when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are
an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local
pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local
pollution potentially is relatively strong.
Citation: Shirsat, S. V. and Graf, H. F.: An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3397-3408, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3397-2009, 2009.