MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research H. Fischer1, M. Birk2, C. Blom1, B. Carli3, M. Carlotti4, T. von Clarmann1, L. Delbouille5, A. Dudhia6, D. Ehhalt7, M. Endemann8, J. M. Flaud9, R. Gessner10, A. Kleinert1, R. Koopman8, J. Langen8, M. López-Puertas11, P. Mosner10, H. Nett8, H. Oelhaf1, G. Perron12, J. Remedios13, M. Ridolfi4, G. Stiller1, and R. Zander5 1Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und Univ. Karlsruhe, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany 2Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany 3Istituto di Fisica Applicata, N. Carrara (IFAC) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Firenze, Italy 4Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica – University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy 5Groupe Infra-Rouge de Physique Atmosphérique et Solaire (GIRPAS), Département AGO, Université de Liège, Belgium 6Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, UK 7Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Atmosphärische Chemie, (ICG3), Jülich, Germany 8ESA/ESRIN, Frascati, Italy and ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands 9Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), CNRS, Université Paris VII et XII, France 10EADS Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen und München, Germany 11Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA), Granada, Spain 12ABB Bomem Inc., Quebec, Canada 13Earth Observation Science (EOS), Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Leicester, UK
Abstract. MIPAS, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, is a
mid-infrared emission spectrometer which is part of the core payload of
ENVISAT. It is a limb sounder, i.e. it scans across the horizon detecting
atmospheric spectral radiances which are inverted to vertical temperature,
trace species and cloud distributions. These data can be used for scientific
investigations in various research fields including dynamics and chemistry
in the altitude region between upper troposphere and lower thermosphere.
The instrument is a well calibrated and characterized Fourier transform
spectrometer which is able to detect many trace constituents simultaneously.
The different concepts of retrieval methods are described including
multi-target and two-dimensional retrievals. Operationally generated data
sets consist of temperature, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O,
HNO3, and NO2 profiles. Measurement errors are investigated in
detail and random and systematic errors are specified. The results are
validated by independent instrumentation which has been operated at ground
stations or aboard balloon gondolas and aircraft. Intercomparisons of MIPAS
measurements with other satellite data have been carried out, too. As a
result, it has been proven that the MIPAS data are of good quality.
MIPAS can be operated in different measurement modes in order to optimize
the scientific output. Due to the wealth of information in the MIPAS
spectra, many scientific results have already been published. They include
intercomparisons of temperature distributions with ECMWF data, the
derivation of the whole NOy family, the study of atmospheric processes
during the Antarctic vortex split in September~2002, the determination of
properties of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, the downward transport of NOx in
the middle atmosphere, the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the influence
of solar variability on the middle atmosphere, and the observation of
Non-LTE effects in the mesosphere.
Citation: Fischer, H., Birk, M., Blom, C., Carli, B., Carlotti, M., von Clarmann, T., Delbouille, L., Dudhia, A., Ehhalt, D., Endemann, M., Flaud, J. M., Gessner, R., Kleinert, A., Koopman, R., Langen, J., López-Puertas, M., Mosner, P., Nett, H., Oelhaf, H., Perron, G., Remedios, J., Ridolfi, M., Stiller, G., and Zander, R.: MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2151-2188, doi:10.5194/acp-8-2151-2008, 2008.