Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia J. S. Han1, K. J. Moon1, S. J. Lee1, Y. J. Kim2, S. Y. Ryu2, S. S. Cliff3, and S. M. Yi4 1Department of Air Quality Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyeongseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon, 404-170, Republic of Korea 2ADvanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC) at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712, Republic of Korea 3The DELTA Group (DAS), University of California, Davis, CA, USA 4Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Yongun-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799, Republic of Korea
Abstract. Size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage
Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM) sampler from 29 March to 29 May in
2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative
background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron
X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19 elements consisting
of S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, Br.
The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix
factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources and
estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. PMF analysis uses
the uncertainty of the measured data to provide an optimal weighting.
Fifteen sources were resolved in eight size ranges (0.07~12 μm) and
included continental soil, local soil, sea salt, biomass/biofuel burning,
coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal
incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline
vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter and volcanic emission. PMF analysis
of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources
represented by local soil, sea salt and continental soil contributed about
79% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM) mass in the coarse
size range (1.15~12 μm). On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such
as coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning contributed about 60% in
the fine size range (0.56~2.5 μm). The diesel vehicle source
contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (0.07~0.56 μm) and
was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass.
Citation: Han, J. S., Moon, K. J., Lee, S. J., Kim, Y. J., Ryu, S. Y., Cliff, S. S., and Yi, S. M.: Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 211-223, doi:10.5194/acp-6-211-2006, 2006.