Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5311-5329, 2017
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/5311/2017/
doi:10.5194/acp-17-5311-2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
24 Apr 2017
Influence of fuel ethanol content on primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential for a modern flex-fuel gasoline vehicle
Hilkka Timonen1, Panu Karjalainen2, Erkka Saukko2,a, Sanna Saarikoski1, Päivi Aakko-Saksa3, Pauli Simonen2, Timo Murtonen3, Miikka Dal Maso2, Heino Kuuluvainen2, Matthew Bloss1, Erik Ahlberg4,5, Birgitta Svenningsson5, Joakim Pagels6, William H. Brune7, Jorma Keskinen2, Douglas R. Worsnop8, Risto Hillamo1, and Topi Rönkkö2 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Composition Research, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
2Tampere University of Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Aerosol Physics, P.O. Box 692, 33101 Tampere, Finland
3VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT Espoo, Finland
4Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
5Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
6Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Box 118, 22100, Lund, Sweden
7Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
8Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
acurrently at: Pegasor Oy, Hatanpään valtatie 34C, 33100 Tampere, Finland
Abstract. The effect of fuel ethanol content (10, 85 and 100 %) on primary emissions and on subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. Emissions were characterized during a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a comprehensive set-up of high time-resolution instruments. A detailed chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter (PM) was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and secondary aerosol formation was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. For the primary gaseous compounds, an increase in total hydrocarbon emissions and a decrease in aromatic BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) compounds was observed when the amount of ethanol in the fuel increased. In regard to particles, the largest primary particulate matter concentrations and potential for secondary particle formation was measured for the E10 fuel (10 % ethanol). As the ethanol content of the fuel increased, a significant decrease in the average primary particulate matter concentrations over the NEDC was found. The PM emissions were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.15 mg m−3 for E10, E85 and E100, respectively. Similarly, a clear decrease in secondary aerosol formation potential was observed with a larger contribution of ethanol in the fuel. The secondary-to-primary PM ratios were 13.4 and 1.5 for E10 and E85, respectively. For E100, a slight decrease in PM mass was observed after the PAM chamber, indicating that the PM produced by secondary aerosol formation was less than the PM lost through wall losses or the degradation of the primary organic aerosol (POA) in the chamber. For all fuel blends, the formed secondary aerosol consisted mostly of organic compounds. For E10, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 35 %, measured for primary organics, to 62 % after the PAM chamber. For E85, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 42 % (primary) to 57 % (after the PAM chamber), whereas for E100 the amount of oxidized organics remained the same (approximately 62 %) with the PAM chamber when compared to the primary emissions.

Citation: Timonen, H., Karjalainen, P., Saukko, E., Saarikoski, S., Aakko-Saksa, P., Simonen, P., Murtonen, T., Dal Maso, M., Kuuluvainen, H., Bloss, M., Ahlberg, E., Svenningsson, B., Pagels, J., Brune, W. H., Keskinen, J., Worsnop, D. R., Hillamo, R., and Rönkkö, T.: Influence of fuel ethanol content on primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential for a modern flex-fuel gasoline vehicle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5311-5329, doi:10.5194/acp-17-5311-2017, 2017.
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Short summary
The effect of fuel ethanol content (10–100 %) on primary emissions and the subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. The emissions were characterized during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using high time-resolution instruments. The chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and the secondary aerosol formation was studied with an oxidation chamber.
The effect of fuel ethanol content (10–100 %) on primary emissions and the subsequent secondary...
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