1Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Received: 14 Jul 2016 – Discussion started: 30 Aug 2016
Abstract. Assessing the environmental, health, and climate impacts of bioaerosols requires knowledge of their size and abundance. These two properties were assessed through daily measurements of chemical tracers for pollens (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), fungal spores (mannitol and glucans), and Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins in two particulate matter (PM) size modes: fine particles (< 2.5 µm) and coarse particles (2.5–10 µm) as determined by their aerodynamic diameter. Measurements were made during the spring tree pollen season (mid-April to early May) and late summer ragweed season (late August to early September) in the Midwestern US in 2013. Under dry conditions, pollen, and fungal spore tracers were primarily in coarse PM (> 75 %), as expected for particles greater than 2.5 µm. Rainfall on 2 May corresponded to maximum atmospheric pollen tracer levels and a redistribution of pollen tracers to the fine PM fraction (> 80 %). Both changes were attributed to the osmotic rupture of pollen grains that led to the suspension of fine-sized pollen fragments. Fungal spore tracers peaked in concentration following spring rain events and decreased in particle size, but to a lesser extent than pollens. A short, heavy thunderstorm in late summer corresponded to an increase in endotoxin and glucose levels, with a simultaneous shift to smaller particle sizes. Simultaneous increase in bioaerosol levels and decrease in their size have significant implications for population exposures to bioaerosols, particularly during rain events. Chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment modeling and regionally specific pollen profiles were used to apportion PM mass to pollens and fungal spores. Springtime pollen contributions to the mass of particles < 10 µm (PM10) ranged from 0.04 to 0.8 µg m−3 (0.2–38 %, averaging 4 %), with maxima occurring on rainy days. Fungal spore contributions to PM10 mass ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 µg m−3 (0.8–17 %, averaging 5 %), with maxima occurring after rain. Overall, this study defines changes to the fine- and coarse-mode distribution of PM, pollens, fungal spores, and endotoxins in response to rain in the Midwestern United States and advances the ability to apportion PM mass to pollens.
Revised: 14 Jan 2017 – Accepted: 16 Jan 2017 – Published: 16 Feb 2017
Rathnayake, C. M., Metwali, N., Jayarathne, T., Kettler, J., Huang, Y., Thorne, P. S., O'Shaughnessy, P. T., and Stone, E. A.: Influence of rain on the abundance of bioaerosols in fine and coarse particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2459-2475, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2459-2017, 2017.