1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191, France
2CSIR Fourth Paradigm Institute (formerly CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation), NAL Belur Campus, Bengaluru 560 037, India
3Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru 560 034, India
4Department of Earth Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India
5Andaman and Nicobar Centre for Ocean Science and Technology (ANCOST), ESSO-NIOT, Port Blair 744103, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
6Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany
7Earth System Sciences Organisation – National Institute of Ocean Technology (ESSO-NIOT), Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, Tamil Nadu, Chennai 600 100, India
8Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, INF 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Received: 26 Jan 2015 – Discussion started: 10 Mar 2015
Abstract. With the rapid growth in population and economic development, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the Indian subcontinent have sharply increased during recent decades. However, evaluation of regional fluxes of GHGs and characterization of their spatial and temporal variations by atmospheric inversions remain uncertain due to a sparse regional atmospheric observation network. As a result of an Indo-French collaboration, three new atmospheric stations were established in India at Hanle (HLE), Pondicherry (PON) and Port Blair (PBL), with the objective of monitoring the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs and other trace gases. Here we present the results of the measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, and H2 from regular flask sampling at these three stations over the period 2007–2011. For each species, annual means, seasonal cycles and gradients between stations were calculated and related to variations in natural GHG fluxes, anthropogenic emissions, and monsoon circulations. Covariances between species at the synoptic scale were analyzed to investigate the likely source(s) of emissions. The flask measurements of various trace gases at the three stations have the potential to constrain the inversions of fluxes over southern and northeastern India. However, this network of ground stations needs further extension to other parts of India to better constrain the GHG budgets at regional and continental scales.
Revised: 11 Aug 2015 – Accepted: 17 Aug 2015 – Published: 01 Sep 2015
Lin, X., Indira, N. K., Ramonet, M., Delmotte, M., Ciais, P., Bhatt, B. C., Reddy, M. V., Angchuk, D., Balakrishnan, S., Jorphail, S., Dorjai, T., Mahey, T. T., Patnaik, S., Begum, M., Brenninkmeijer, C., Durairaj, S., Kirubagaran, R., Schmidt, M., Swathi, P. S., Vinithkumar, N. V., Yver Kwok, C., and Gaur, V. K.: Long-lived atmospheric trace gases measurements in flask samples from three stations in India, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9819-9849, doi:10.5194/acp-15-9819-2015, 2015.