1Department of Atmospheric Composition, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
2Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-ASF), Karlsruhe, Germany
3Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA
4Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (IARC), Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
5Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
6Department of Atmosphere, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
7Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liège (ULg), Liège, Belgium
8Department of Earth and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
9Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
10Climate Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland
Received: 11 Jul 2014 – Discussion started: 25 Sep 2014
Abstract. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of solar absorption spectra can provide ozone total columns with a precision of 2% but also independent partial column amounts in about four vertical layers, one in the troposphere and three in the stratosphere up to about 45km, with a precision of 5–6%. We use eight of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) stations having a long-term time series of FTIR ozone measurements to study the total and vertical ozone trends and variability, namely, Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Thule (77° N), Kiruna (68° N), Harestua (60° N), Jungfraujoch (47° N), Izaña (28° N), Wollongong (34° S) and Lauder (45° S). The length of the FTIR time series varies by station but is typically from about 1995 to present. We applied to the monthly means of the ozone total and four partial columns a stepwise multiple regression model including the following proxies: solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic and Antarctic Oscillation (AO/AAO), tropopause pressure (TP), equivalent latitude (EL), Eliassen–Palm flux (EPF), and volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC).
Revised: 19 Feb 2015 – Accepted: 23 Feb 2015 – Published: 16 Mar 2015
At the Arctic stations, the trends are found mostly negative in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, very mixed in the middle stratosphere, positive in the upper stratosphere due to a large increase in the 1995–2003 period, and non-significant when considering the total columns. The trends for mid-latitude and subtropical stations are all non-significant, except at Lauder in the troposphere and upper stratosphere and at Wollongong for the total columns and the lower and middle stratospheric columns where they are found positive. At Jungfraujoch, the upper stratospheric trend is close to significance (+0.9 ± 1.0% decade−1). Therefore, some signs of the onset of ozone mid-latitude recovery are observed only in the Southern Hemisphere, while a few more years seem to be needed to observe it at the northern mid-latitude station.
Vigouroux, C., Blumenstock, T., Coffey, M., Errera, Q., García, O., Jones, N. B., Hannigan, J. W., Hase, F., Liley, B., Mahieu, E., Mellqvist, J., Notholt, J., Palm, M., Persson, G., Schneider, M., Servais, C., Smale, D., Thölix, L., and De Mazière, M.: Trends of ozone total columns and vertical distribution from FTIR observations at eight NDACC stations around the globe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2915-2933, doi:10.5194/acp-15-2915-2015, 2015.