Classification of clouds sampled at the puy de Dôme (France) based on 10 yr of monitoring of their physicochemical properties L. Deguillaume1,2, T. Charbouillot1,2,3,4, M. Joly1,2,3,4, M. Vaïtilingom1,2,3,4, M. Parazols1,2,3,4, A. Marinoni1,2,*, P. Amato3,4, A.-M. Delort3,4, V. Vinatier3,4, A. Flossmann1,2, N. Chaumerliac1,2, J. M. Pichon1,2, S. Houdier5,6, P. Laj1,2,**, K. Sellegri1,2, A. Colomb1,2, M. Brigante3,4, and G. Mailhot3,4 1Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, OPGC, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, BP 10448, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France 2CNRS, UMR6016, LaMP/OPGC, BP80026, 63177 Aubière, France 3Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France 4CNRS, UMR6296, ICCF, BP 80026, 63177 Aubière, France 5Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble 1, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, 38041 Grenoble, France 6CNRS, UMR5183, 38041 Grenoble, France *now at: the Institute for Atmospheric Science and Climate (ISAC), CNR, Bologna, Italy **now at: Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE), CNRS/University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France
Abstract. Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of clouds (73 cloud events
representing 199 individual samples) sampled at the puy de Dôme (pdD)
station (France) was performed between 2001 and 2011. Physicochemical
parameters, as well as the concentrations of the major organic and inorganic
constituents, were measured and analyzed by multicomponent statistical
analysis. Along with the corresponding back-trajectory plots, this allowed
for distinguishing four different categories of air masses reaching the
summit of the pdD: polluted, continental, marine and highly marine. The
statistical analysis led to the determination of criteria (concentrations of
inorganic compounds, pH) that differentiate each category of air masses.
Highly marine clouds exhibited high concentrations of Na+ and Cl−;
the marine category presented lower concentration of ions but more elevated
pH. Finally, the two remaining clusters were classified as "continental"
and "polluted"; these clusters had the second-highest and highest levels of
NH4+, NO3−, and SO24−, respectively. This unique data
set of cloud chemical composition is then discussed as a function of this
classification. Total organic carbon (TOC) is significantly higher in
polluted air masses than in the other categories, which suggests additional
anthropogenic sources. Concentrations of carboxylic acids and carbonyls
represent around 10% of the organic matter in all categories of air
masses and are studied for their relative importance. Iron concentrations are
significantly higher for polluted air masses and iron is mainly present in
its oxidation state (+II) in all categories of air masses. Finally,
H2O2 concentrations are much more varied in marine and highly
marine clouds than in polluted clouds, which are characterized by the lowest
average concentration of H2O2. This data set provides concentration
ranges of main inorganic and organic compounds for modeling purposes on
multiphase cloud chemistry.
Citation: Deguillaume, L., Charbouillot, T., Joly, M., Vaïtilingom, M., Parazols, M., Marinoni, A., Amato, P., Delort, A.-M., Vinatier, V., Flossmann, A., Chaumerliac, N., Pichon, J. M., Houdier, S., Laj, P., Sellegri, K., Colomb, A., Brigante, M., and Mailhot, G.: Classification of clouds sampled at the puy de Dôme (France) based on 10 yr of monitoring of their physicochemical properties, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1485-1506, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1485-2014, 2014.