1National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan
2Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
3Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan
4National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO, USA
5Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA, USA
6Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Japan
7Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Japan
*now at: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA
Abstract. Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) retrieved from Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) observations were validated with aircraft measurements by the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) program, and the GOSAT validation aircraft observation campaign over Japan. To calculate XCO2 based on aircraft measurements (aircraft-based XCO2), tower measurements and model outputs were used for additional information near the surface and above the tropopause, respectively. Before validation, we investigated the impacts of GOSAT SWIR column averaging kernels (CAKs) and the shape of a priori profiles on the aircraft-based XCO2 calculation. The differences between aircraft-based XCO2 with and without the application of GOSAT CAK were evaluated to be less than ±0.4 ppm at most, and less than ±0.1 ppm on average. Therefore, we concluded that the GOSAT CAK produces only a minor effect on the aircraft-based XCO2 calculation in terms of the overall uncertainty of GOSAT XCO2.
We compared GOSAT data retrieved within ±2 or ±5° latitude/longitude boxes centered at each aircraft measurement site to aircraft-based data measured on a GOSAT overpass day. The results indicated that GOSAT XCO2 over land regions agreed with aircraft-based XCO2, except that the former is biased by −0.68 ppm (−0.99 ppm) with a standard deviation of 2.56 ppm (2.51 ppm), whereas the averages of the differences between the GOSAT XCO2 over ocean and the aircraft-based XCO2 were −1.82 ppm (−2.27 ppm) with a standard deviation of 1.04 ppm (1.79 ppm) for ±2° (±5°) boxes.