Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010 US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
06 Aug 2013
Received: 22 Oct 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 23 Nov 2012 Abstract. An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to
reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In
this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a
consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from
1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx,
CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3,
PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were
estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about
activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related
stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System.
Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were
calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years
(i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the
AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset.
Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway
vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics
reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission
factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National
Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were
either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based
on the NEI trends report.
Revised: 15 Mar 2013 – Accepted: 01 Jul 2013 – Published: 06 Aug 2013
Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power
sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were
reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in
this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions
Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by
trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC
(speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel
Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient
SO2, NO2, CO and EC concentrations, suggesting that the various
controls on emissions implemented over the last two decades are well
represented in the emission inventories developed in this study. These
inventories were processed by SMOKE and are now ready to be used for
regional chemistry transport model simulations over the 1990–2010 period.
Citation: Xing, J., Pleim, J., Mathur, R., Pouliot, G., Hogrefe, C., Gan, C.-M., and Wei, C.: Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7531-7549, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7531-2013, 2013.