Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica 1Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
23 Jul 2013
2Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Sciences (IKBM), Ås, Norway
3University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo, Norway
Received: 27 Sep 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 08 Mar 2013Abstract. A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants
(POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station
Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane
(HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and
cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were
selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period
2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic
monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of
priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods.
Revised: 07 Jun 2013 – Accepted: 10 Jun 2013 – Published: 23 Jul 2013
The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower
than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for
Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around
22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the
following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples
analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes.
Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination
source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport
events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial
sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian
particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).
Citation: Kallenborn, R., Breivik, K., Eckhardt, S., Lunder, C. R., Manø, S., Schlabach, M., and Stohl, A.: Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6983-6992, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6983-2013, 2013.