Impacts of the mountain–plains solenoid and cold pool dynamics on the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation over northern China 1State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
23 Jul 2013
2Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
Received: 29 August 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 24 October 2012 Abstract. Convection-permitting numerical experiments using the Weather Research and
Forecasting (WRF) model are performed to examine the impact of a
thermally driven mountain–plains solenoid (MPS) on the diurnal variation of
warm-season precipitation over northern China. The focus of the analyses is a
15-day simulation that uses the 8-day average of the NCEP GFS gridded
analyses at 00:00 UT between 17 and 24 June 2004 for the initial conditions
and the 8-day averages at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00, and 18:00 UT for the lateral
boundary conditions. Despite differences in rainfall intensity and location,
the control experiment captures the essence of the observed diurnal
variation of warm-season precipitation in northern China. Consistent with
observations, the simulated local precipitation peak initiates in the
afternoon on the eastern edge and the immediate lee of the mountain ranges
due to the upward branch of the MPS. The peak subsequently propagates
downslope and southeastward along the steering-level mean flow, reaching the
central North China Plain around midnight and early morning hours, resulting
in a broad area of nocturnal precipitation maxima over the central plains.
Sensitivity experiments show that, besides the impact of the MPS, cold pool
dynamics play an essential role in the propagation and maintenance of the
precipitation peak over the plains.
Revised: 01 May 2013 – Accepted: 14 June 2013 – Published: 23 July 2013
Citation: Xinghua Bao and Fuqing Zhang: Impacts of the mountain–plains solenoid and cold pool dynamics on the diurnal variation of warm-season precipitation over northern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6965-6982, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6965-2013, 2013.