1Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
2Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
3Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
4Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Received: 14 Nov 2012 – Discussion started: 11 Dec 2012
Abstract. Gasoline vehicles have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from three passenger vehicles (EURO2–EURO4) were investigated with photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out down to atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization instruments included a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind of urban areas. After a cumulative OH exposure of ~5 × 106 cm−3 h, the formed SOA was 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than the primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 (mass fraction at m/z = 43), approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C6–C9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher-order aromatic compounds such as C10 and C11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes. We conclude that approaches using only light aromatic precursors give an incomplete picture of the magnitude of SOA formation and the SOA composition from gasoline exhaust.
Revised: 08 May 2013 – Accepted: 22 May 2013 – Published: 28 Jun 2013
Nordin, E. Z., Eriksson, A. C., Roldin, P., Nilsson, P. T., Carlsson, J. E., Kajos, M. K., Hellén, H., Wittbom, C., Rissler, J., Löndahl, J., Swietlicki, E., Svenningsson, B., Bohgard, M., Kulmala, M., Hallquist, M., and Pagels, J. H.: Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6101-6116, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6101-2013, 2013.