Stratospheric ozone interannual variability (1995–2011) as observed by lidar and satellite at Mauna Loa Observatory, HI and Table Mountain Facility, CA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Table Mountain Facility, Wrightwood, California, USA
15 May 2013
Received: 09 October 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 29 November 2012 Abstract. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidars, at the Mauna Loa Observatory,
Hawaii (MLO, 19.5° N, 155.6° W) and the JPL Table Mountain
Facility (TMF, California, 34.5° N, 117.7° W), have been
measuring vertical profiles of stratospheric ozone routinely since the early
1990's and late-1980s respectively. Interannual variability of ozone above
these two sites was investigated using a multi-linear regression analysis on
the deseasonalised monthly mean lidar and satellite time-series at 1 km
intervals between 20 and 45 km from January 1995 to April 2011, a period of
low volcanic aerosol loading. Explanatory variables representing the 11 yr
solar cycle, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Quasi-Biennial
Oscillation, the Eliassen-Palm flux, and horizontal and vertical transport
were used. A new proxy, the mid-latitude Ozone Depleting Gas Index, which
shows a decrease with time as an outcome of the Montreal Protocol, was
introduced and compared to the more commonly used linear trend method. The
analysis also compares the lidar time-series and a merged time-series
obtained from the space-borne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,
Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder instruments.
Revised: 11 April 2013 – Accepted: 17 April 2013 – Published: 15 May 2013
The results from both lidar and satellite measurements are consistent with
recent model simulations which propose changes in tropical upwelling.
Additionally, at TMF the Ozone Depleting Gas Index explains as much variance
as the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in the upper stratosphere. Over the past 17 yr a diminishing downward trend in ozone was observed before 2000 and a net
increase, and sign of ozone recovery, is observed after 2005. Our results
which include dynamical proxies suggest possible coupling between horizontal
transport and the 11 yr solar cycle response, although a dataset spanning a
period longer than one solar cycle is needed to confirm this result.
Citation: Kirgis, G., Leblanc, T., McDermid, I. S., and Walsh, T. D.: Stratospheric ozone interannual variability (1995–2011) as observed by lidar and satellite at Mauna Loa Observatory, HI and Table Mountain Facility, CA, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5033-5047, doi:10.5194/acp-13-5033-2013, 2013.