Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4393-4411, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Cold trap dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer characterised by SOWER chilled-mirror hygrometer network data in the Tropical Pacific
F. Hasebe1, Y. Inai2, M. Shiotani3, M. Fujiwara1, H. Vömel4, N. Nishi5, S.-Y. Ogino6, T. Shibata7, S. Iwasaki8, N. Komala9, T. Peter10, and S. J. Oltmans11
1Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
2Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
3Research Institute for Suitainable Humanoshpere, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan
4GRUAN Lead Center, Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg, Lindenberg, Germany
5Geophysical Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
6Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
7Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
8National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Japan
9Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, Bandung, Indonesia
10Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Z{ü}rich, Zurich, Switzerland
11CIRES, University of Colorado and Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO, USA

Abstract. A network of balloon-borne radiosonde observations employing chilled-mirror hygrometers for water and electrochemical concentration cells for ozone has been operated since the late 1990s in the Tropical Pacific to capture the evolution of dehydration of air parcels advected quasi-horizontally in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The analysis of this dataset is made on isentropes taking advantage of the conservative properties of tracers moving adiabatically. The existence of ice particles is diagnosed by lidars simultaneously operated with sonde flights. Characteristics of the TTL dehydration are presented on the basis of individual soundings and statistical features. Supersaturations close to 80% in relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) have been observed in subvisible cirrus clouds located near the cold point tropopause at extremely low temperatures around 180 K. Although further observational evidence is needed to confirm the credibility of such high values of RHice, the evolution of TTL dehydration is evident from the data in isentropic scatter plots between the sonde-observed mixing ratio (OMR) and the minimum saturation mixing ratio (SMRmin) along the back trajectories associated with the observed air mass. Supersaturation exceeding the critical value of homogeneous ice nucleation (OMR > 1.6 × SMRmin) is frequently observed on the 360 and 365 K surfaces indicating that cold trap dehydration is in progress in the TTL. The near correspondence between the two (OMR ~ SMRmin) at 380 K on the other hand implies that this surface is not sufficiently cold for the advected air parcels to be dehydrated. Above 380 K, cold trap dehydration would scarcely function while some moistening occurs before the air parcels reach the lowermost stratosphere at around 400 K where OMR is generally smaller than SMRmin.

Citation: Hasebe, F., Inai, Y., Shiotani, M., Fujiwara, M., Vömel, H., Nishi, N., Ogino, S.-Y., Shibata, T., Iwasaki, S., Komala, N., Peter, T., and Oltmans, S. J.: Cold trap dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer characterised by SOWER chilled-mirror hygrometer network data in the Tropical Pacific, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4393-4411, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4393-2013, 2013.
Search ACP
Final Revised Paper
Discussion Paper